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Phonetics
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1.Loudness theory of syllable formation and syllable division. Russian linguist and psychologist N.I. Zhinkin has suggested the so-called loudness theory which seems to combine both production and perception levels. The experiments carried out by N.I. Zhinkin showed that the arc of loudness of perception level is formed due to variations of the volume pharyngeal passage which is modified by contractions of its walls. The narrowing of the passage and the increase in muscular tension which results from it reinforce the actual loudness of a vowel thus forming the peak of the syllabic. So the syllable is the arc оf loudness which correlates with the arc of articulatory effort on the speed production level since variations in loudness are due to the work of all speech mechanisms.It is perfectly obvious that no phonetician has succeeded so far in giving an adequate explanation of what the syllable is. The difficulties seem to arise from the various possibilities of approach to the unit. There exist two points of view:Sоme linguists consider the syllable to be a purely articulatory unit which lacks any functional value. This point of view is defended on the ground that the boundaries of syllables do not always coincide with those of morphemes. However the majority of linguists treat the syllable as the smallest pronounceable unit which can reveal some linguistic function. Trying to define the syllable from articulatory point of view we may talk about universals. When we mean the functional aspect of the syllable it should be defined with the reference to the structure of one particular language. The definition of the syllable from the functional point of view tends to single out the following features of the syllable:a) a syllable is a chain of phonemes of varying length;b) a syllable is constructed on the basis of contrast of its constituents (which is usually of vowel - consonant type);c) the nucleus of a syllable is a vowel, the presence of consonants is optional; there are no languages in which vowels are not used as syllable nuclei, however, there are languages in which this function is performed by consonants;d) the distribution of phonemes in the syllabic structure follows by the rules which are specific enough for a particular language.The linguist and psychologist N.I. Zhinkin has suggested the so-called l o u d n e s s theory which seems to combine both levels . The experiments carried out by N.I. Zhinkin showed that the arc of loudness on perception level is formed due to variations of the volume of pharyngeal passage which is modified by contraction of its walls. The narrowing of the passage and the in-crease in muscular tension which results from it reinforce the actual loudness of a vowel thus forming the peak of the syllable. So according to this theory the syllable could be thought of as the arc of loudness which correlates with the arc of articulatory effort on the speech production level since variations in loudness are due to the work of all the speech mechanisms.



2.The connection of phonetics with stylistic.Phonetics is connected with stylistics through intonation which serves to express different emotions and distinguish between different attitude on the part of the speaker or reader. Much of what people say depends directly or indirectly on the situation they are in. On the one hand, variations of language in different situations it is used in are various and numerous but, on the other hand, all these varieties have much in common as they are realizations of the same sys tem. That means that there are regular patterns of variation in language, or, in other words, language means which constitute any utterance are characterized by a certain pattern of selection and arrangement. The principles of this selection and arrangement, the ways of combining the elements form what is called the style. Style integrates language means constructing the utterance, and at the same time differentiates one utterance from another. The branch of linguistics that is primarily concerned with the problems of functional styles is called functional stylistics. Stylistics is usually regarded as a specific division of linguics tics, as a sister science, concerned not with the elements of the language as such but with their expressive potential. A functional style can be depened as a functional set of formal patterns into which language means are arranged in order to transmit information. A considerable number of attempts have been made in recent years to work out a classication of functional styles. But in spite of this fact, there is no universal classication that is admitted by all analysts.

^ 3.Constitutive function of speech sounds. Speech sounds and all the other phonetics phenomena fulfil three main functions: constitutive , distinctive, and recognitive. The first function is known to be the constitutive function of the syllable. It lies in its ability to be a part of a word or a word itself. The syllable forms language units of greater magnitude, that is words, morphemes and utterances. In this respect two things should be emphasized. First, the syllable is the unit within which the relations between the distinctive features of the phonemes and their acoustic correlates are revealed . Second, within a syllable (or a sequence of syllables) prosodic characteristics of speech are realized, which form the stress-pattern of a word and the rhythmic and intonation structures of an utterance. In sum, the syllable is a specific minimal structure of both segmental and suprasegmental features.

The other function of the syllable is its distinctive function. In this respect the syllable is characterized by its ability to differentiate words and word-forms. To illustrate this a set of minimal pairs should be found so that qualitative and/or quantitative pe culiarities of 

certain allophones should indicate the beginning or the end of the syllable.

Recognitive function consists in the use of the right allophones in words.

^ 4.The notion of word accent: qualitative type of word accent.

The syllable or syllables which are uttered with more prominence than the other syllables of the word are said to be stressed or accented. Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more syllables in a word, which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance, pitch of the voice, qualitative and quantitative characteristics

of the sound which is usually a vowel .The correlation of vary ing prominences of syllables in a word is understood as the accentual structure of the word or its stress pattern.

According to the most salient feature the following types of word stress are distinguished in different languages:

1. dynamic or force stress if special prominence in a stressed syllable(syllables) is achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation;

2. musical or tonic stress if special prominence is achieved mainly through the range of pitch, or musical tone.

3. quantitative stress if special prominence is achieved through the changes in the quantity of the vowels, which are longer in the stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones.

4. qualitative stress if special prominence is achieved through the changes in the quality of the vowel under stress. Vowel reduction is often used as manipulation of quality in unstressed syllables. A syllable may become more prominent if the vowel is pronounced distinctly and its quality is not obscured. For instance: the [is] vowels in [s’ ] (serious) are bit different in quality: the stressed [ia] is distinct and clear, while the unstressed [ia] is somewhat obscured. According to professor G. P. Torsuyev this type of word accent is qualitative.
^ 5.Rhythm as a component of intonation.

The most important section of an intonation-group is the nucleus. It is the essential element. Without a nuclear tone there may be no intonation group. All other sections are non obligatory. Tempo, rhythm and pauses are considered to be temporal components of intonation. Tempo is the rate or duration of the speech. It may be slow , normal or quick. The more important part of a sentence is said at a slow tempo the less important are pronounced quickly. Tempo is closely connected with rhythm. Our speech is subdivided rhythmically into units. Speech rhythm may be defined as a regular reccurence of stressed syllable.

We cannot fully describe English intonation without reference to speech rhythm. Prosodic components (pitch, loudness, tempo) and speech rhythm work, interdependently. Rhythm seems to be a kind of framework of speech organization. Linguists sometimes consider rhythm as one of the components of intonation.

Rhythm as a linguistic notion is realized in lexical, syntactical and prosodic means and mostly in their combinations. For instance, such figures of speech as sound or word repetition, syntactical parallelism, intensification and others are perceived as rhythmical on the lexical, syntactical and prosodic levels.

Speech rhythm is traditionally defined as recurrence of stressed syllables at more or less equal intervals of time in a speech continuum. We also find a more detailed definition of speech rhythm as the regular alternation of acceleration and slowing down, of relaxation and intensification, of length and brevity, of similar and dissimilar elements within a speech event.
^ 6.Shifting subtype of free word accent.

Accent is called shifting if it changed its position from one morpheme to another in different derivatives and grammatical form of the word. In languages with free word accent it is extremely difficult to determine the position of the stress in every word. Such is the case with the Russian language. It accentuation system must be learned individually. This type of alternation is often strengthened not only by suffixation but also by the shifting of stress like in: part– particular, 'climate – cli'matic. 2. Consonant Alternations



1. Distinction of irregular verbal forms: [d – t]: send – sent, lend – lent

Vowel + Consonant Alternations (often supported by suffixation and the shifting of stress)

[i – ai] + [v – f]: live – life

[a : – ei] + [θ – ð]: bath – bathe

[e – i:] + [θ – ð]: breath – breathe

[ɒ –u:] + [s – z]: loss – lose

Sound alternations are also widely spread on the synchronical level in the present- day English and are known as contextual. In connection with contextual sound alter- nations there arises a problem of phonemic identification of alternated sounds. The functioning of sounds in different grammatical forms and derivatives of words seems very complicated and fiexible. The study of the relationship between phonemes and morphemes is called morphophonemics. The interrelation of phonology and morphology in linguistic investigations is also known as morphophonology or morphonology which is actually the phonology of morphemes.

^ 7.Tree types of obstruction.

The obstructor mechanism is responsible only for the production of consonants. To the obstructor mechanism belong the following active and passive speech organs: the tongue, the lips, the teeth, the alveoli, the palate, soft palate and the uvula ,the back boundary of the pharynx and tha vocal cords. When articulating sounds the organs of speech may occupy one or another position. There are several types of articulatory obstructions: complete, incomplete and intermittent.

The obstruction is complete when the articulating organs are in close contact. The air passage is completely blocked. Consonants articulated with this type of obstruction are called occlusive.

The obstruction is called incomplete when the organs of speech are not blocked completely but only constricted or narrowed leaving a passage for the air to go through. Consonants produced with this type of obstruction are called constrictive.

The obstruction is called intermitted when the two articulating organs form a series of rapid intermittent taps. Consonants articulated in this way are known as rolled (or trilled) like the Russian /p/ or the Scottish /r/ or the Amercan English /t/.
^ 8. The notion of a syllable: 4 types.

Phonemes are seldom pronounced in isolation. They usually occur in sequences. Any speech flow consists of series of peaks and valleys of prominence with the more sonorous phonemes at the peaks and less sonorous in the valleys. Thus, sound sequences are acoustically broken up into smaller units known as syllables, which are the minimal units of sounding speech. A syllable may consists of one or number of phonemes.

A speech sound which is capable of forming a syllable is called syllabic.it is the most sonorous sound in the syllable and makes up the peak of prominence. Speech sound which is capable of forming a syllable is called non-syllabic. It is the less sonorous sond of the syllable and makes up the valleys of prominence. The syllabic structure of words may be graphically represented by the letter V standing for a vowel sound, and the letter standing for a consonant sound. The syllabic sonorant is represented by S.Every sound has a definite structure. It belongs to one of the following 4 main types of syllable: V, VC, CV, CVC. They are classified as covered, uncovered, open and closed. A syllable which begins in a consonant is called covered. A syllable which begins in a vowel is called uncovered. A syllable which ends in a vowel is called open. A syllable which ends in a consonant is called closed. For ex.: V- 

uncovered, open: eye[ai], awe [o:]; VC – uncovered, closed: on [on], at [ᴂt]; CV – covered, open: you [ju:], bore [bo:]; CVC – covered, closed: cap [cᴂp], sit [sit], man [mᴂn].

^ 9. Tempo as a component of intonation.

It is fairly obvious that words are seldom pronounced by themselves, as vocabulary items. They are usually arranged into sentences in accordance with its grammatical and phonetic structures of the languages. And one of the components of the phonetic structure of a language is its intonation. It is the main factor that turns a word or group of words into a sentence. British phoneticians consider intonation as a close connection between intonation and stress whereas American descriptivists speak of intonation and stress as different phonetic phenomena. C.H.Prator states that intonation is the tune of what we say. Quite different is the opinion of the majority of Russian linguists on the problem of intonation. According to their point of view intonation is a complex unity of speech melody, word prominence, tempo, rhythm and pauses, and voice-tamber. The components of intonation all function together, they are inseparable from one another but they can be singled out for the sole purpose of phonetic analysis.

Tempo, rhythm and pauses are considered to be temporal components of intonation. Tempo is a rate, or duration of speech. It may be slow, normal or quick. The more important parts of a sentence is said at a slow tempo, the less important ones are pronounced quickly. Tempo is closely connected with rhythm. Our speech is subdivided rhythmically into units. Speech rhythm maybe defined as a regular reccurence of stressed and unstressed syllables. The tempo of speech may influence the accentual pattern of words. With the quickening of the speed the carefulness of articulation is diminished, the vowels arereduced or elided, the secondary stress may be dropped, e.g. The 'whole organi'zation ofthe 'meeting was 'faulty
^ 10. Muscular tension theory of syllable formation and division.

Academician L.V. Shcherba [1963] put forward the theory ofsyllable formation and syllable formation and syllable division. It was put forward by the French linguist MichaelleGrammont and supported and further developed by the Russian linguist Lev V. Scherba. Academician Lev VolodymyrovychScherba explained syllable formation by muscular tension impulses and three types of consonants. In speaking, muscular tensionimputes follow one another. Each impulse has its strongest point – the peak of prominence – and its weakest prominence – the valley of prominence. Valleys of prominencecorrespond to points of syllabic division. The end of one syllable and the beginning ofthe next one can be ascertained by determining the type of consonants which take partin forming the syllables.

Consonants may be pronounced:

1. initially strong(and finally weak) - the beginning of a consonant may be more energetic, while the end may be weaker;

2. finally strong(and initially weak) - the beginning of the consonant may be weak, and its end more

energetic;

3. double– both the beginning and the end are energetic with a weakening of muscular tension in the middle, acoustically, they give the impression of two consonants.

The more energetic part of a consonant is attached to a vowel. E.g. in the word “ten” there are 2 consonants: [t] and [n]. The consonant [t] is finally strong and initially weak, because the vowel is attached to the end of the consonant. The consonant [n] is initially strong and finally weak, because the vowel is attached to the beginning of [n]. at the beginning [t] is weak, at the end it gets stronger. The muscular tension increases still until it reaches ita climax produced by the vowel [e]. Then the muscular tension begins to diminish. The [n] is still strong at the beginning but gets quite weak at the end.

The syllabic boundary lies at the point where the consonant is the weakest. Initially weak consonants constitute the beginning of a syllable. Finally weak consonants constitute the end of a syllable. Double peaked consonants may only occur at the juncture of 2 syllables, for 

ex. – [gud-dei] good day. This theory was known as muscular tension theory.

^ 11. The value of practical phonetics.

The term “phonetics” is derived from the Greek language. Phonetics is often defined as a branch of linguistics dealing with the phonetic structure of a language. It means that phonetics studies: the sounds, their classification and distribution; the syllabic structure of words; the accentual structure of words, its nature, place and degree; the intonational structure of sentences. Phonetics may be general and special, historical and comparative, and theoretical and practical. Practical phonetics has a wide sphere of application:

It is used in teaching foreign languages and mother tongues to children and adults.

It helps to create new alphabets and orthographies and to improve already existing orthographies.

Phonetics is also used in training actors, singers, teachers, etc.

Phonetics helps in teaching deaf-mutes to speak.

Phonetics is used in sound cinematography when dubbing films from one language into another, etc.

^ 12. Practical application of practical phonetics.

The term “phonetics” is derived from the Greek language. Phonetics is often defined as a branch of linguistics dealing with the phonetic structure of a language. It means that phonetics studies: the sounds, their classification and distribution; the syllabic structure of words; the accentual structure of words, its nature, place and degree; the intonational structure of sentences. Phonetics may be general and special, historical and comparative, and theoretical and practical. Practical phonetics has a wide sphere of application:

It is used in teaching foreign languages and mother tongues to children and adults.

It helps to create new alphabets and orthographies and to improve already existing orthographies.

Phonetics is also used in training actors, singers, teachers, etc.

Phonetics helps in teaching deaf-mutes to speak.

Phonetics is used in sound cinematography when dubbing films from one language into another, etc.

^ 13. Articulation basis (the notion).

People belonging to different races and nationalities possess an identical speech apparatus. That is why in all existing languages there are typologically identical sounds, such as consonants, vowels and sonorants, for example, in all European languages of the Soviet Union there are such typologically identical sounds as – a, o, u, i, e, t, k, l, s, d, etc. and yet, not a single sound of one language is absolutely identical spectrally with a typologically identical sound of another language. This is due to the fact that people use their speech organs differently, or, as phoneticians say, it is due to the difference in the articulation basis. The articulation basis is the general tendencies in the way native speakers use their speech organs both during speech or at rest. The articulation basis of one language may differ from the articulation basis of another language. Though the articulation bases of English, Kazakh and Russian have not yet been studied we may only speak about the most characteristic features of the Received Pronunciation articulation basis as compared with the Kazakh and Russian Standard articulation bases.

^ 14. Free type of word accent.

Languages are also differentiated according to the place of word stress. The traditional classification of languages concerning place of stress in a word is into those with a fixed stress and those with a free stress. In languages with a fixed stress the occurrence of the word stress is limited to a particular syllable in a polysyllabic word. For instance, in French the stress falls on the last syllable of the word (if pronounced in isolation), in Finnish and Czech it is fixed on the first syllable, in Polish on the one but last syllable. In languages with a free stress its place is not confined to a specific position in the word. In one word it may fall on the first syllable, in another on the second syllable, in the third word — on the last syllable, etc. The free placement of stress is exemplified in the English and Russian languages, e.g. English: 'appetite - be'ginning - ba'lloon; Russian: озеро - погода - молоко.

Free word accent may be of 2 subtypes: constant and shifting. Accent is called constant if it remains on the same morpheme in all 

derivatives and grammatical forms of the word. E.g. in English: ‘culture, ‘cultural, ‘cultured, ‘culturing, ‘ culturally; in Russian: ‘улица, ‘уличный, ‘улочка, ‘улицы.

Accent is called shifting if it changes its position from one morpheme in different derivatives and grammatical forms of the word. E.g. in Russian: ‘зелень, зе’леный, зеле’неть, зелено’ватый; ‘дома — до’ма; ‘чудная — чуд’ная, ‘воды — во’ды; in English: ‘occupancy, occu’pant, ‘occupatio’nist, occu’pational; 'contrast — con'trast; 'habit — habitual 'music — mu'sician.

In languages with free word accent it is extremely difficult to determine the position of the stress in every word. Such is the case with the Russian language. Its accentual system must be learnt individually.


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