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Лекции - Скляренко Зинаиды Феодосьевны по теоретической грамматике английского языка - файл 1.doc


Лекции - Скляренко Зинаиды Феодосьевны по теоретической грамматике английского языка
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Grammar in the systemic conception of language

Language is a means of forming & storing ideas as reflection of reality & exchanging them into process of human intercourse.

Language is social by nature. It is connected with people, who create & use it. It develops with the development of society. Language includes 3 parts:

  1. Formological system – determines the phonetical appearance of the significant unites.

  2. Lexical system – is a number of words & word groups.

  3. Grammatical system – is a number of rules, determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterance as the embodiment of thinking process.

Each of these parts is studied by a particular linguistic discipline. 1 is carried out by morphology, 2 – by lexicology, 3 – by grammar.

Any linguistic description may have practical & theoretical parts. Practical description provides with a manual of practical mastery of the corresponding part of language. Practical linguistic manuals comprise all the types of description: Formological, lexical, grammatical.

As for the theoretical linguistic descriptions, they usually pursue analytical aims, thus the aim of theoretical grammar is to present a theoretical description of the grammatical system. That is to analyze its grammatical categories & study the mechanisms of grammatical formation of utterances & of words in the process of speech-making.

Theoretical grammar is used as the mechanisms according to which the language works, when it is used to communicate people.

There exist 3 types of grammar:

  1. A – in our minds. “Language competence”

  2. B – grammar in books. This grammar teaches you what you must do to speak correctly & what to avoid. “Normative grammar”

  3. C – descriptive. “Theoretical”

The main function of language is to communicate with other people. There is no such thing as good or bad grammar. It is better to speak about good or bad communication. Language should be used in such a way that it expresses its meaning effectively. It is possible to speak or write according to the rules of Stanford language, & yet to produce language, that is not difficult to follow. In this case we say “bad style”.

^ E.g. This is a picture that a girl that friend of mine knows painted.

She has given a job in London up.

Theoretical grammar is descriptive. It takes into consideration all language parts, analyzes them, so as to give explanations.

Within grammar we discriminate it in morphology & syntax. Morphology deals with the forms of words. Syntax deals with phrases, sentences & texts. Morphology is more abstract than syntax, because it doesn’t study connections between words used together in sentences.

Different forms are analyzed extracted from their natural environment.

Theoretical grammar is scientific in its character. Using certain methods, it investigates speech material.
Methods of linguistic research

In grammar investigation scholars use a number of methods.

  1. Historical comparative

  2. Oppositional

  3. Distributional

  4. Immediate constituency

  5. Transformational method

At the beginning of XIX century the first method was created. The appearance of this method marks the rise of linguistics as a science. The adherents of this method concentrate their attention of the history of separate linguistic fragments, losing sight of their interrelations in the system of language. As a reaction to this method a new theory appeared, paying much attention to the interconnections of lingual elements.

The main schools of modern linguistics are the ^ Prague school, the Copenhagen school & the American school. The Prague school deals with functional linguistics. The Copenhagen school deals with gloss semantics. The American school deals with descriptive linguistics.

The main contribution of Prague school is the technique for determining the unites of the formological structure of language. Main method of research is oppositional, made by N. Smirnitsky.
Oppositional analysis

Nowadays the notion of opposition has become very popular not only in formology, but in grammar too.

An opposition is such a relation of linguistic unites which presupposes the presence of some distinctive feature on the basis of some formal quality, which constitutes the basis of comparison. The main principles of opposition are comparison & contrast. The most important types of opposition are privative, gradual & equipollent.

Privative is such an opposition one member of which is characterized by the presence of some distinctive feature, while the other doesn’t signal whether this feature is present or not. The members of it are called the strong or marked member & weak or unmarked member.

-/+ +

E.g. a dog – dogs.

Neutralization – the unmarked member acquires the meaning of the marked member.

E.g. Dog is a domestic animal.

Transposition takes place when the marked member of the opposition acquires the meaning of the unmarked member.

- +

^ E.g. comes – is coming

Gradual is such an opposition the members of which are characterized by different degrees of the same quality.

+ ++ +++

E.g. fine – finer – the finest

Equipollent is such an opposition the members of which are logically equal, but each member has a distinctive feature of its own.

^ E.g. the Present Simple & the Past Simple.
Distributional analysis

The main notions of this analysis are distribution & environment. Distribution is a total of all environments in which this element occurs. Environment is a set of its neighbouring elements.

^ E.g. I don’t mind his presence. – mind + noun

I don’t mind taking part in the debate. – mind + gerund

I don’t mind his/him attending my lectures. – mind + gerundial construction

There are 3 types of distribution.

1. Contrastive. It is understood as difference of two linguistic unites occurring in the same environment & changing one linguistic form into another.

E.g. He took my pen.

He took my pens.

2. Not-contrastive is understood as difference of two linguistic unites occurring in the same environment without changing one linguistic form into another.

^ E.g. She learnt/learned English two years ago.

3. Complementary. Two elements are in complementary distribution if they never occur in the same environment but have the same meaning.

E.g. boys [z], cats [s], watches [iz]

Distributional analysis was worked out by S. Harris. This method is based on the principle of occurrence. Any word may be represented by a symbol.

E.g. N - noun, V - verb, A – adjective, D – adverb

In studying speech, scholars try to see what classes of words occur together. This method helps to represent the language structure in a general form. It helps to see the changes in the linguistic elements, because they are signalled by the change in their distribution. In the distributional analysis all elements are given in a chain order.

^ E.g. A big man helped the small boy willingly.

t A N1 Ved t A N2 D

This method doesn’t reflect different inner syntactic connections in structures which have the same sequence of elements.

E.g. The police shot the man in the red cap.

The police shot the man in the right arm.

t N N t N prep t A N
To discriminate between such sequences it is better to resort to the immediate constituent analysis (ICs).

IC model is closely connected with terms constituent & immediate constituent. Constituent is a linguistic form, part of some larger construction. Immediate constituent is one of two constituents of which a given linguistic form is built up.

The theoretical pieces of this model include the following:

  1. There is only one type of syntactic relations – subordination.

  2. The predicate is the central part of the sentence.

  3. The analysis is based on a binary principle. The unit of the analysis is a binary subordinate phrase.

E.g. NP VP

The || man | hit || the ||| ball.

The aim of this analysis is to find the IC structure of a sentence. The division of the construction under the IC analysis begins with the largest elements and goes on as far as possible. On each level of the IC analysis we deal with 2 elements only. These two elements are reduced into one new element, which is equal in its syntactic function to the head word of the group.

The rules of reduction are:

  1. D + A → AP (adverbial phrase)
    E.g. Very good

  2. A + N → NP (noun phrase)
    E.g. chilly weather.

  3. V + N → VP (verb phrase)
    E.g. hit the ball

  4. NP + VP → S (sentence)

This method of analysis differs from the previous one, because it shows all the inner connections between words in a sentence under analysis.
Transformational analysis

This model is based on the idea that the structure of language consists of two subsystems: kernel & transforms. All the sentences are subdivided into these two types.

Transforms are derived from kernel sentences by certain transformational rules. There exist 3 sets of the transformational rules.

  1. S1 → S2
    E.g. The secretary took the paper. → The paper was taken by the secretary.

  2. S → NP
    E.g. The weather is sunny. → Sunny weather.

  3. S1 + S2 → S3
    E.g. She didn’t answer his question. It displeased him. → As she didn’t answer his question, it displeased him.

This method of analysis helps to prove that some identical structures present quite different syntactic models. When we look for kernel sentences in order to explain the structure & meaning of some sentence, we say that we define its transformational history. The model takes into account not all the relations among the components of the same sentence, but the relations of the given sentence to the structure of the others.

^ E.g. John is easy to please. John is eager to please.


It is easy. John is eager.

Somebody pleases John. John pleases somebody.


The main notions of morphology

The morph is a minimal sequence of phonemes which possesses a certain meaning & regularly occurs in various environments.

^ E.g. clear, clearly, clearness.

The morpheme is a group of one or more morphs united by the same meaning & which are in complementary distribution.

E.g. bags, notes, watches – a morpheme of plurality.

Morphs which constitute a certain morpheme are called variants or allomorphs. Allomorphs are subdivided into phonemically & morphologically conditioned.

E.g. smiled [d], worked [t], divided [id] – phoneme morphs.

child – children – morphemic morphs.

foot – feet, tooth – teeth – replacive morphs.

sheep – sheep – zero morph Ø
Types of morphemes

In English there are 3 types of morphemes:

  1. free (root)

  2. bound (affixes)
    E.g. table – tables; deer – deer Ø

  3. word morphemes

Affixes are subdivided into prefixes & suffixes. Prefixes are always word-building ones. As for suffixes, they may be both lexical & grammatical.

E.g. worker – lexical; works – grammatical

Lexical suffixes are lexical grammatical morphemes.

E.g. to teach – teacher

Grammatical suffixes are called inflexions.

On the basis of this classification of morphemes a general structure of a word may be given like this:

in – just – ice – s

prefix – root – suffix – inflexion

Any morpheme or a combination of morphemes to which an inflexion can be added is called a stem. In English, besides free & bound morphemes an intermediate type of morphemes may be singled out. These morphemes function as affixes, but they are not found in the root. They are grammatical word morphemes.

E.g. He has done it.

He gave up smoking.

Lexico-grammatical word morpheme.

Word form is the unity of the stem & the inflexion.

E.g. smiles – smiled – smiling

Word forms have patterns of derivation depending on the types of grammatical morphemes, which constitute them.

  1. affixation

  2. sound alternation

  3. suppletive formation

  4. analytical formation


Affixation is found in the so called synthetic forms. Synthetic forms are built up with the help of inflexion. The number of inflexions is 8, besides among them there are many homonyms.

  1. Z1 – the category of number (plurality).
    E.g. cats, dogs, watches

  2. Z2 – the Present Simple of the third person singular.
    E.g. translates, opens, watches

  3. Z3 – genitive case.
    E.g. a cat’s tail, baby’s toys, Charles’s article

  4. D1 – the Past Simple of regular verbs.
    E.g. played, dressed, translated

  5. D2 – Participle 2 of regular verbs
    E.g. played, dressed, translated

  6. Ving – participle 1 or gerund

  7. er – comparative degree of adjectives

  8. est – superlative degree


Sound alternation.

In modern English some word forms are built up by means of changing a sound inside of a root.

E.g. take – took, speak – spoke, foot – feet
Suppletive form of derivation is such a way of derivation when a word form is built up by means of using a word of a different stem.

^ E.g. be – am – is – are – was – were – been; good – better – best; go – went – gone
Analytical word forms are such forms, which are built up with the help of grammatical word morphemes.

E.g. She is coming in a minute.
Form class is a set of word forms, which differ by their stems, but have the same inflexion.

E.g. books, tables, chairs etc.
The grammatical category is the opposition of at least 2 sets of form classes, contrasted on the basis of a certain general grammatical meaning.
Paradigm is a set of opposed form classes. It may contain several grammatical categories. The minimal paradigm coincides with a grammatical category.

E.g. a boy – boys – category of number

a boy – a boy’s test – category of case

a boy – a girl – a star – category of gender
Lexeme in grammar is a set of word forms which differ by their inflexions, but have the same stem.

E.g. smile – smiles – smiled – smiling
Classes of words

The problem of word classes is one of the most complicated in the history of language. The earliest attempts to describe them go back to such countries as India & Asia. Each stage of linguistics brought in its own way of dividing words into classes. The fact is quite natural, because classes of words inflect not only the structure of language, but also the depth of grammatical description.
Criteria for classification

The first attempt at classifying words was made by Henry Sweet. He thought that semantic, morphological and syntactic characteristics of a word should be taken into consideration at one & the same time. It was the opinion of Otto Jesperson as well. He classified the vocabulary into declinables (nouns, adjectives, verbs) and indeclinables (adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections). With a slight variation this classification appeared in most traditional grammar books.

The Russian linguistics approach is more consistent. Russian linguists divided the word classes by the following 5 principles:

  1. The general lexico-grammatical meaning of words.

  2. The lexicogrammatical morphemes or stem-building elements; e.g. signify

  3. Grammatical categories or paradigms

  4. Distribution (combinability)

  5. The function in sentence.


Types of classifications

  1. Comprehensive classification was worked out by our Russian grammarians Khaimovich & Togovskaya. According to this classification there are 14 classes of words: noun, verb, statives (words of the category of state, e.g. asleep, awake etc), adjective, adverb, pronoun, numeral, conjunction, preposition, interjection, article, modal words (e.g. probably, perhaps, evidently), particles, responses (yes/no).
    B.Ilyish considered articles to be not words, but grammatical morphemes. For Barkhudarov statives & adjectives belong to one & the same class. Ilyish, Barkhudarov & Kaushanskaya considered that there is no class of response words.

  2. Morphological classification is based on morphological principle. It was introduced by H.Glesson. He divided words into classes according to their paradigm. There are 4 classes of words: noun, adjective, verb, personal pronoun. All the other groups are called syntactic groups.

  3. Charles Frese divided all the words according to their functional syntactic features. He believed that all the words which can occupy the same position in the sentence must belong to the same class. He used the technique of substitution in the so called test-frames. He used 3 main test-frames.

  1. The concert was good. (the structures meaning is thing and its quality at given time)

  2. The clerk remembered the tax. (actor, action & thing acted upon)

  3. The team went there. (actor, action & direction of the action)

All the words can fall in the same positions of the frames without affecting their general structural meaning can belong to one an the same class. Using this technique Charles Frese pointed out 4 classes: noun, adjective, verb, adverb. As for the rest of the words, he distributed them into 15 functional groups by means of the same method in extended test-frames.
Groups of word classes

Classes of words are subdivided into notional, functional & sentence words (interjections, modal words, emphatic particles, yes/no).

The properties of functional words are as follows:

  1. Invariable.

  2. They don’t function as the members of the sentence.

  3. They have no modifiers.

  4. They are not stressed as a rule.


Migration of words

This process of migration of words is usually called conversion. Conversion is a way of forming new words from already existing ones by means of changing their paradigm, lexico-grammatical meaning, combinability & function. It is possible to point out several types of conversion:

  1. Verbalization of nouns. E.g. a doctor – to doctor

  2. Substantivization of adjectives. E.g. a rich man – the rich.

  3. Adverbalization of nouns. E.g. home – домашний очаг (уст.)

  4. Substantivization of verbs. E.g. to break – a break.


The verb

It is the most complex part of speech, a system of systems.

  1. It’s categorical meaning is process developing in time.

  2. Word class’s constituting affixes: -fy, -ize, -en, sub-, mis-, un- etc.

  3. It has 7 grammatical categories: tense, aspect, time correlation, mood, voice, person, number.

  4. Distribution (combinability): combines with nouns & adverbs.

  5. Syntactic function – predication.

The main division of the verb is between finite verbs & non-finite. As for the finite verbs, they have grammatical categories & the syntactic function is that of predication.

The non-finite forms (infinitive, gerund, participle) have purely semantic connection with other words. Of the 7 grammatical categories they have only 3: aspect, voice, time correlation. These categories are not connected with predication. All the functions of the non-finite verbs are nominal, except the function of a part of a compound verbal predicate. The non-finite forms can be used as subject, object, predicative, attribute & adverbial modifier. But in our linguistics both forms finite & non-finite belong to the same class, because of their semantic using, some common grammatical categories, their combinability. It can be proved by their transformational history.

E.g. bird sings – a singing bird; they arrived late – their arriving late.

These are 3 main classifications of the verb: morphological, semantic, functional.

  1. Morphological classification is the way the verb builds up its basic forms (infinitive, past simple, participle I & II). All the verbs are subdivided into regular & irregular. The group of irregular verbs includes 7 subgroups which are the remnants of the old English 7 classes of verbs.
    E.g. sit – sat – sat; build – built – built; cut – cut – cut etc.
    According to their morphological structure verbs are divided into:

  1. Simple: to go, to take, to read.

  2. Derived: to misunderstand, to rewrite.

  3. Compound (consisting of two stems): to broadcast, to whitewash.

  4. Composite (consisting of a verb & a post-position of an adverbial origin): to give up, to take off, to switch on. It is productive way of forming verbs.

  1. Semantic classification is based on a general semantic character of a verb: there are verbs of motion (to arrive, to come, to go), verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to notice), of mental activity (to think, to believe, to consider).
    Besides verbs can be subdivided into: terminative & non-terminative. ^ Terminative verbs denote actions which cannot develop beyond a certain inherent limit. The actions denoted by non-terminative verbs have no inherent limits.
    E.g. terminative: to come, to take, to stand up, to sit down; non-terminative: to live, to love, to stand, to shine.
    The majority of verbs are of double semantic character. They may be both terminative & non-terminative.

  2. ^ Functional classification is based on the structural role of the verb in the sentence. According to the syntactic function of the verb they are derived into notional & auxiliary.
    Notional verbs are those which have a full meaning of their own & can be used without any additional words as a simple predicate.
    E.g. She told the truth.
    Notional verbs can be transitive & intransitive. Transitive verbs can take a direct object that is they express an action which passes on to a person or thing directly: to take to give, to send, to make etc.
    There are verbs which can be used either with or without direct object: to read, to write, to hear etc.
    ^ E.g. He can read & write. (intransitive)
    Intransitive verbs can’t take a direct object. Here belong: to stand, to sleep, to laugh, to think, to swim etc.
    E.g. They laughed bitterly.
    Some verbs in different context can be transitive & intransitive, such as: to open, to move, to change, to drop etc.
    ^ E.g. The door opened (intransitive). He opened the door (transitive).
    Auxiliary verbs are those which have lost their meaning & are used as form words, thus having a grammatical function. They are used in analytical forms.
    E.g. to be, to do, to have, shall, will, should, would

There are semi auxiliary verbs. They are used as a structural element in a syntactic unit. Here belong: link verbs, modal verbs, verb substitutes, emphatic verbs.

    1. ^ Link verbs: to be, to become, to grow, to turn etc.
      Every notional verb may be used as a link verb. Link verbs have lost their meaning & are used in a compound nominal predicate which usually denotes the state or quality of a person or thing expressed by the subject. Link verbs have partly lost their original concrete meaning. Only one link verb has lost its meaning altogether. It is the verb to be. It can be combined with any part of speech used as a predicative. According to their meaning link verbs are divided into 2 large groups:
      ^ Link verbs of being and remaining: to be, to remain, to look, to smell, to stand, to lie, to shine, to seem etc.
      Link verbs of becoming
      : to become, to get, to grow, to go, to turn etc.

    2. Modal verbs have a certain modal meaning & are used as the first element in a compound verbal modal predicate. Modal verbs usually show the speaker’s attitude either to the action or to the state denoted by the infinitive. The modal verbs are: can (could), may (might), must, should, would, ought, shall, will, dare, need. The modal expressions are: to be + infinitive, to have + infinitive.

    3. Verb-substitutes don’t name any action, but point to the action already mentioned in order to avoid repletion: do/did.
      E.g. The girl scraped through the exam, & so did he.

    4. ^ Emphatic verbs: do/did.
      E.g. Do be quite! I did know him.


The grammatical categories of the verb

The main approach to the description of grammatical categories is oppositional, because oppositions the main in morphology. Finite forms have ^ 7 grammatical categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, time correlation, person, number.
The grammatical category of tense is recognized by everybody. It reflects the objective category of time & expresses on this background the relations between the time of the action & the time of the utterance.

The main division of objective time is clear past, present, future. Thus the grammatical category of tense is represented by an opposition of 3 members showing the relations of the time and the action denoted by the verb to the moment of speech.

^ E.g. present – writes, past – wrote, future – will write

The time of the action can be expressed lexically with the help of such words and word combinations as: yesterday, a year ago, next week etc. It can also be shown grammatically by means of the category of tense. It is usual to express the notions of time graphically.







Past Present Future
The relation between the Present, the Past and the Future is complicated. The present in speech is not a point of the moment of speaking, but a more or less long period of time including this moment.

^ E.g. The Earth rotates round the Sun.

In the sentence we deal the Present, but this Present not only includes the present moment, but covers a long period of time starching in both directions from the present moment.

The Past is the time proceeding the present moment. The Future is the time following the present moment. Neither of them includes the present moment.

Tenses may be used absolutely and relatively. We say that the tense is used absolutely if it is used to show the time of the action with regard to the present moment (the moment of speech).

^ E.g. She loses her temper. She lost her temper. She will lose her temper.

But very often tense reflects the time of an action not with regard to the moment of speech, but to some other moment in the past, indicated by the tense another verb.

E.g. He said she lost her temper. He said she had lost her temper. He said she would lose her temper.

The Future-in-the-Past tenses don’t easily fit into a system of tenses represented by a straight line running out of the Past into the Future. Their starting moment is not the Present from which the Past and the Future are reckoned, but the Past itself. With regard to all Future-in-the-Past tenses we may say that the Past is a new center of the system. Thus the idea of temporal centers suggested by professor Ivanova seems quite logical in analyzing the Future-in-the-Past tenses.

Professor Irtenyeva put forward a different view on the English tense system. There are tenses centering in the Present and those centering in the Past. The former include the Present Simple, the Present Perfect, the Present Progressive, the Present Perfect Progressive, Future tenses. The latter include the all the Past and all the Future-in-the-Past tenses. Thus we have a two fold division of tenses.
The grammatical category of voice is represented by a binary privative opposition constituted by 2 from classes, active & passive, in which passive voice is the marked member of the opposition both in form “to be +participle II” and in meaning. Active voice is a weak member both in form & meaning.

As for the definition for the category:
1. The category shows the relation between the subject & the action.

2. It shows the relation between the subject and the object of the action.

-/+ +

^ Active Passive

invites is invited

invited was invited

will invite will be invited

There are direct, indirect and prepositional passive.

Some forms of the active voice find no parallel in the passive. It refers to the forms of the Future Continuous, Future Continuous in the Past and all the Perfect Continuous tenses. At various times the following 3 voices have been suggested in addition to the 2 already mentioned.

  1. Reflexive
    E.g. He dressed himself.

  2. Middle
    E.g. The door closed.

  3. Reciprocal
    E.g. They kissed each other.


The grammatical category of aspect is represented by 2 sets of forms in modern English: non-continuous, continuous. These forms are contrasted with each other on the principal of use & non-use of the pattern “to be + participle I”.

-/+ +

^ Non-continuous Continuous

writes is writing

wrote was/were writing

will write will be writing

The continuous aspect is marked both in form and in meaning. As for the non-continuous aspect, it isn’t marked in form and in meaning as a rule.

The continuous aspect denoted an action going on at a given period of time. The non-continuous aspect denotes an action which is not limited in this way. The grammatical category of aspect shows difference in the way the action is shown to proceed.

Professor Ivanova recognizes the existence of this category in English, but she objects to the term common aspect or non-continuous aspect saying that the forms write, wrote are purely tense forms.

As for the Russian verb, it has 2 aspects, the perfective and the imperfective, but there is no direct correspondence between Russian and English aspects. Thus the English common (non-continuous) aspect may correspond not only to the Russian imperfective aspect.
The grammatical category of time-correlation (of order, of phase) is represented by binary opposition, constituted by 2 form classes: perfect and non-perfect. The perfect is the marked member of the opposition both in form and in meaning. The non-perfect is a weak member of the opposition both in form and in meaning as a rule.

-/+ +

^ Non-perfect Perfect

writes has written

wrote had written

will write will have written

This category shows whether the action is viewed as prior to other actions or irrespective of other actions. Linguists disagree as to the category of the perfect belongs. Some grammarians think that it forms part of the aspect system (the resultive aspect). Other linguists treat perfect as belonging to the tenses. Smirnitsky was the first to draw attention that the forms represent a grammatical category which is different from the category of tense, though it is closely connected with it.

^ E.g. She has come. – priority to the act of speech.

She had come before he phoned over. – priority to the act of his phoning over.

Thus the perfect forms express priority, whereas non-perfect lays the action unspecified.
The grammatical category of mood

Mood is the grammatical category of the verb reflecting the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality from the speaker point of view.

^ E.g. He listens attentively. – indicative mood

Listen attentively! – imperative mood

He would have listened attentively if he had been interested. – subjunctive mood

We deal with the same action of listening, but in the first sentence the action is represented as taking place in reality; in the second it is a command; in the third the action is imaginary, it is non-fact. So in modern English we distinguish 3 moods.

There is no unity of opinion concerning this category. In the opinion of Kaushanskaya in modern English there are synthetic and analytical forms. The synthetic forms are: the Present Subjunctive of all the verbs and the Past Subjunctive of the verb to be.

The ^ Present subjunctive denotes an action referring to the Present of Future. This form is found in poetry, elevated prose, scientific language, language of official documents and some set phrases.

E.g. God forbid!

Suffice it to say that he soon came back.

In American English the Present Subjunctive is used in colloquial speech.

E.g. She insisted that he take care of her.

The Past Subjunctive were is widely used in English is found not only in literature but in colloquial language.

E.g. I wish she were wiser.

The analytical forms are: should + bare infinitive, would + bare infinitive, may/might + bare infinitive.

E.g. If I were the head of the country, I should extend the application of a law to all.

In general the number of English moods in different theories varies from 2 to 17. Kaushanskaya, Ilyish, Ivanova, Iofik find only 3 moods. Barkhudarov believed that there are 2 moods: indicative and subjunctive subdivided into subjunctive 1 and subjunctive 2. As for the imperative, it is treated outside the category of mood.

The difficulty of distinguishing of other moods from the indicative in English is connected with the fact that they do not contain a single form which is not used in the indicative. The meanings of these 3 moods are distinguished not so much by the opposition of the individual forms, but by the opposition of the system of forms each mood possesses.

E.g. To have:

Indicative: have, has, had

^ Subjunctive: have, had

Imperative: have

One of the most important differences between the indicative mood and the other moods is that the meaning of tense doesn’t go with the meanings of the subjunctive and imperative moods. Tense reflects the real time of the real action, but the imperative and subjunctive moods represent the action not as real, but as desirable or imaginary.
Syntax

Our modern theory of syntax includes:

  1. the study of the phrase (minor syntax)

  2. the study of the sentence (major syntax). It deals with simple sentences, parts of sentence, complex sentences, compound sentences, composite sentences.

  3. the study of text or discourse. The unit of investigation is text or complex syntactic unit.


Syntactic bonds & means of their expression

The structure of syntactic units is formed of constituencies which are joined by means of syntactic connections or bonds. A syntactic bond is a connection between words or groups of words in a flow of speech. In syntactic analysis more effective is the notion of an immediate syntactic bond, by which we mean the syntactic connection between 2 words or group of words which on a certain level of IC analysis turn out to be the immediate constituency of one and the same larger construction.

E.g. He | deserved || my ||| friendship.
Types of syntactic bonds

There are 3 types of syntactic bonds:

  1. predication

  2. subordination

  3. coordination

Predication is such a type of syntactic bond in which the syntactic function of the whole group differs from the syntactic function of its IC.
E.g. complex object

His joke made me laugh.

subjectival predicatival

Subordination is such a type of syntactic bond when the syntactic function of the whole group coincide with the syntactic function of one the IC but differs from the other.

^ E.g. Subject

His joke made me laugh.

attribute subject

Coordination is such a type of syntactic bond when the syntactic function of the whole group coincides with the syntactic function of each of its IC.

^ E.g. predicative

He was tired and hungry.

predicative predicative
Means of expression of syntactic bonds

They are subdivided into synthetic (unproductive) and analytical (productive).

The first synthetic means is agreement or control, the second is government.

Agreement is a combination of subordinating and subordinated words by means of the morphological categories they both share.
E.g. He writes plays.

This lesson. These lessons.

Government means the use of a certain form of the subordinated words required by its headword but not coinciding in form with the head word.

E.g. Give me this book.

Peter’s book.

Analytical means: word order, functional words and detachment.

Word order is the leading means, because in English there are few inflections. It helps to establish correct syntactic bonds within a sentence. In word order we find joining and enclosure.
Joining exists between an adverb and its head word. An adverb has no such grammatical categories which would allow it to agree with another word or to be governed by it.
E.g. It happened unexpectedly.

Enclosure takes place when some element of the phrase is enclosed between 2 parts of another element.

E.g. On the sport investigation.

Prepositions and conjunctions belong to functional words.

As for the detachment, some grammarians look upon it as loosening of syntactic bonds.

E.g. She said silent. – predicate.

She said, silent. – detachment.
The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more notional words which doesn’t constitute a sentence (Barkhudarov).

The phrase is a group unit formed by any combination of 2 or more words in which neither of the elements can be transformed or substituted in its position by a word of another class or subclass (Ilyish, Burlakova).

The second definition is much wider, because it includes not only phrases consisting of notional words, but also prepositional phrases, predicative phrases with finite verbs.
The main types of phrases

According to the type of syntactic bond existing between immediate constituents, the main types are:

  1. Subordinate. E.g. fond of reading; writing a letter

  2. Coordinate. E.g. sooner or later; brother and sisters

  3. Predicative. E.g. for you to go; for time permitting


Subordinate phrases usually consist of the head, which is an independent element, and an adjunct, which is a dependent constituent.

Subordinate phrases are subdivided into several groups into:

  1. Noun phrases. E.g. a sleepless night.

  2. Verb phrases. E.g. worked hard.

  3. Adjective phrases. E.g. rich in oil.

  4. Pronominal phrases. E.g. some more weak students.

  5. Adverbial phrases. E.g. very well.

  6. Participial & gerundial phrases. E.g. wasting the time.

According to their structure phrases are divided into:

  1. simple or unextended, which usually consist of 2 notional words.
    E.g. cold water, quite near

  2. complex or extended, consisting of more than 2 notional words.
    E.g. He ran hastily downstairs. – parental extension.
    very cold water – continuing extension.


^ According to the place of the elements phrases can be continuous and discontinuous.

E.g. very warm wind – continuous.

“I’m ready”, said the boy cheerfully. – discontinuous.
Subordinate verb phrases occupy some specific place in the syntactic structure in modern English due to wide valency of the verb. There are 3 subclasses of the verb phrases.

  1. The head of which can be expressed by transitive words. Adjuncts in such phrases are called objective compliments.
    E.g. To read a good book was pleasure.

  2. The head of which can be expressed only by intransitive verbs. Adjuncts in such phrases are called qualifying compliments.
    E.g. She remained silent.

  3. The head of which can be expressed by transitive and intransitive words. Adjuncts in such phrases are called extensions.
    E.g. She regarded him fixedly.


Coordinate phrases

The main feature is the same syntactic function of their immediate constituents. It may be tested by the ability of any constituent to substitute the whole phrase.

E.g. They drove slowly in silence.

The means of expressing of syntactic bonds of coordinate phrase are 3 in number.

  1. coordinate conjunctions

  2. word order

  3. intonation

Accordingly coordinate phrases are subdivided into the following subclasses:

  1. syndetic phrases, which fall into 2 subclasses:

    1. Simple phrases with continuous conjunctions (and, but, or, as well as, along with)
      E.g. She refused everything but a piece of bread.

    2. Correlative phrases with discontinuous conjunctions (both and, either or, neither nor, not only but)

  2. Asyndetic coordinate phrases fall into 2 subclasses.

    1. Copulative – when conjunctions can be inserted between the immediate constituents.
      E.g. He was hot (and) hungry (and) tired.

    2. Appositive phrases. Immediate constituents of appositive phrases refer to the same person or object, that’s why they do not allow insertion of any construction.
      ^ E.g. king Lear, grammarian Blumkins.


Predicative phrases consist of 2 parts: subjectival and predicatival.

E.g. subjectival predicatival

She didn’t expect me to come up to her.
The relations between subjectival and predicatival are similar to those of the subject and the predicate, but predicatival can never be expressed by a finite verb. That’s why predicative phrases can’t function as independent units. The person or thing expressed by the subject of the sentence and the subjectival are different.

All predicative phrases are subdivided into bound and absolute.

Bound predicative phrases are grammatically connected with the verb predicate of the sentence. These phrases are not isolated. They function as extended adjuncts. They may be expressed by the following constructions:

  1. Objective with the infinitive.
    E.g. Nobody saw him leave the room.

  2. Objective participial construction.
    E.g. Nobody saw him leaving the house.

  3. Subjective infinitive construction.
    E.g. He is known to have been a talented writer.

  4. Subjective participial construction.
    E.g. They were heard quarrelling.

  5. For + to infinitive construction.
    E.g. For me to go back would be to admit I was afraid.

  6. Gerundial and half-gerundial construction.
    E.g. Barbara(‘s) coming tonight meant a lot.

Independent absolute predicative phrase may be expressed by nominative absolute construction:

E.g. She began to go downstairs, the boy following her.

And prepositional absolute constructions:

E.g. He stood there, with his mouth open.
Sentence is the main object of syntax as a part of the grammatical theory. The sentence is the integral unit of speech, consisting of words and distinguished by a certain communicative purpose.

According to Kaushanskaya, a sentence is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of language and which serves as the chief means of conveying the thought. A sentence is not only a means of communicating something about reality, but also a means of showing the speaker attitude to it. It usually expresses a complete thought. Besides, every sentence has certain intonation. The central predication in a sentence of a verbal type is a finite verb. The finite verb expresses an essential predicative meaning by means of grammatical category of tense and mood. In the predicative semantics are included such syntactic meanings as purposes of communication, decoration, interrogation, inducement, modal probability, affirmation and negation. The sentence performs 2 important functions: nominative (substance-naming) and predicative (reality evaluating).

There are some definitions of the sentence.

^ Blokh: Sentence is a construction which in a given utterance is not a par of any larger construction.

Barkhudarov: Sentence is a linguistic construction with a subjective predicative structure.

Pacheptsov: Sentence is a minimal syntactic structure used in speech acts and which has characterizing features, the main of which are predication and structure scheme or model.
Classification of sentences

Sentences may be classified:

  1. according to the type of classification: interrogative, declarative, imperative.

  2. according to the emotional colouring: neutral, emotionally coloured, exclamatory.

  3. according to the character of predicative relations: affirmative, negative.

  4. according to the number of the main parts: two-member sentences, verbless two-member sentences, one-member sentences.

  5. according to the structural completeness: complete, incomplete.

  6. according to the character of the subject.

  7. according to the number of predicative units: simple, composite. Composite are subdivided into compound and complex. There are also semi-compound and semi-complex sentences.

There are 3 communicative sentence types: declarative, imperative, interrogative.

Declarative sentences are in the affirmative or negative form. Interrogative sentences ask a question. There are 4 kinds of questions:

  1. General

  2. Special

  3. Alternative

  4. Disjunctive

An imperative sentence is used to induce a person to do something. It expresses a command, invitation, request etc.

Besides, we can speak about so called exclamatory sentences, but this type of sentences doesn’t possess qualities that could place them on the same level with 3 communicative types. Each of the 3 communicative types can be represented in 2 variants: neutral (non-exclamatory) and exclamatory.

^ E.g. It was a long story!

Why did you come?!

Try to speak sensibly!

According to Ilyish, there may be purely exclamatory sentences, which usually don’t belong to any of these types.

E.g. What a strange man!

Such a sunny day!

According to the number of main parts, sentences may be 2-member and 1-member. A 2-member sentence has 2 main members: a subject and a predicate. It may be complete or incomplete. If it is complete, it has both a subject and a predicate. A sentence is incomplete when one of the principle parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context. Such sentences are called elliptical and are mainly used in dialogs, in colloquial speech, newspapers headings and advertisements.

E.g. – What did you do?

- Filled them.

Nowadays some linguists take a broader view on ellipsis. They think that a sentence is elliptical if any part of the sentence is missing (primary or secondary), and one of those is Barkhudarov.

E.g. – When does she come back?

- The day after tomorrow.

According to Barkhudarov, elliptical sentences are divided into syntagmatically and paradigmatically restored.

Syntagmatically restored sentences are those in which the missing parts are restored from the context or situation. They may be built of different parts of the sentence.

  1. Of the predicate or some part of it.
    E.g. – What happened?
    -
    Dropt them.

  2. Of the subject.
    E.g. – Who was late?
    -
    Ellis.

  3. Of the object.
    E.g. – Have you seen them?
    -
    Him.

  4. Of the adverbial modifier.
    E.g. – Where are they staying?
    -
    In the house.

Paradigmatically restored sentences are such in which the missing part is restored on analogy with existing 2-member complete sentences.

^ E.g. – Married? (Are you…)
- Widower, sir. (I am a…)


Besides there exist one-member sentences, which consist only of one member, which is neither the subject nor the predicate, but the sentence has a certain model, intonation and predicativity. One-member sentences are used in descriptions and in emotional speech. The central part of the sentence can be expressed by nouns, numerals, adjectives, adverbs, non-finite forms of the verb, so they fall into 4 structural classes.

  1. Nominal.
    E.g. Evening of the same day.

  2. Adjectival.
    E.g. How horrible!

  3. Adverbial.
    E.g. In the doorway of the house.

  4. Verbal.
    E.g. Living in such a way!


Semantics of obligatory syntactic positions

The list of elementary sentence structures shows that our traditional division of the parts of the sentence into primary and secondary should be revised, because not only the primary parts are obligatory. The secondary parts of the sentence are not always optional as their name can suggest. They can be subdivided into obligatory and optional. The obligatory secondary parts are those the omission of which turns the sentence structurally and semantically incomplete, so the object is an obligatory secondary part.

As for the adverbial modifier, it has different properties depending on the subclass of the verb.

The attribute is usually looked upon as optional, but in some sentences it is obligatory.

E.g. A girl with green eyes passionately looked at him.

A structure of the sentence includes the following obligatory syntactic positions:

  1. Subject

  2. Predicate

  3. Direct object

  4. Indirect object

  5. Prepositional object

  6. Adverbial modifier of time and place


The primary semantic functions of the obligatory syntactic positions

The most typical function of the subject is agentive. It is the animate being causing the happening denoted by the verb.

E.g. The girl opened the window.

The most typical function of the direct object is affected, which shows an affected participant (animate or inanimate) which doesn’t cause the happening denoted by the verb, but which is directly involved in the happening in some or other way.

^ E.g. All of them criticized the prime minister.

The most typical function of the indirect object is recipient, which means that a recipient is an animate participant which is passively implicated by the happening or state.

E.g. I have found you the book.

The most typical function of the prepositional object is instrument, which is usually inanimate thing which causes an event.

E.g. She cut her finger with a knife.

The most typical function of the adverbial modifier of time is temporal.

The most typical function of the adverbial modifier of place is locative.
Secondary semantic functions of the obligatory syntactic positions

The subject can be affected, recipient, temporal, locative, instrument and empty.

E.g. Jack broke his leg. – affected

I was given the text book. – recipient

The summer of 1999 was chilly. – temporal

The path was swarming with ants. – locative

It often rains in autumn. – empty

Direct object can be locative.

E.g. The boy climbed the tree.

Indirect object can be affected.

E.g. I paid her a visit.

I gave the door a couple of kicks.

Prepositional object can be recipient and agentive.

E.g. The librarian gave the book to him. – recipient.

He was given the book by the librarian. – agentive.
The textual function of a sentence (functional sentence perspective)

The most important notion related to the textual function of the sentence is text or discourse. Text is a specifically arranged totality of sentences, united by certain relation of communicative semantic and structural types. Grammarians agree to the lower border line of the text, it is one sentence, but the upper border line of the text hasn’t been established yet. It may be a paragraph, a chapter, a story etc. Linguists usually investigate a complex syntactic unit. It is a group of sentences united by autonomous sense, common communicative intention and certain structural relation. The textual function of the sentence relates to the way the sentences are organized as messages. One principle of sentence organization was developed by the Prague school of linguistics. It was FSP. In the study of textual functions of a sentence there’ve been several theories. The greatest contributions were made by Firbus and Mathesius.

In studying FSP we deal with the problem of dividing a sentence into 2 sections. The first is the starting point (the known, the theme, topic), and the second is new information (the unknown, the rheme, comment).

The position of the utterance, which is the known, expresses the starting point of communication, whereas the new contains new information. The known is usually the subject or the subject group of the sentence, and the unknown is usually the predicate group. The most important semantic element, which is a part of the new, is called the centre of communication. The difference between theme and rheme is found in different degrees of dynamism. Theme is static, rheme is dynamic.




^ E.g. theme rheme

The girl has come.

center

In such utterances the grammatical division coincides with the actual division of the sentence, and this sequence is called objective. In contradiction there is also the subjective sequence, when the rheme precedes the theme. We actually start with a new piece of information to show the expressive attitude of the speaker.

^ E.g. rheme theme

The girl has come

In connected speech the centre of communication of one utterance may become the starting point of the utterance that follows.

^ E.g. theme rheme theme rheme

The horse belonged to a tall sharp-faced woman. The woman knew a lot about racing.
Means of making the center of communication

Linguistic means used by the speaker to express FSP are as follows:

  1. Prosodic means, such as variation in pitch, loudness, pausation.

  2. Pragmatic means: words and constructions which are used to indicate the relationship between the utterance and the participants of the speech act.

  3. Word order


Prosodic means

The rheme is usually associated with nucleus of the final intonational group. In Russian non-emphatic sentences, the nucleus usually coincides with the last stressed unit of the tone group, but in English the nucleus can be often placed on a non-terminal stressed unit.

^ E.g. theme

They met Mary at the station.

In Russian we can place Mary at the end of the sentence considering this information to be important, but in English we can’t do it, thus the position of the nucleus can serve as a formal linguistic device to compensate for the role of word order in pointing out FSP in non-emphatic utterances. Pauses are used to point out FSP. They show the border line between theme and rheme.

^ E.g. theme rheme rheme

She leaned forwardeagerly.

The isolated part of a sentence is dynamic and rhematic. The sentence acquires a new dynamic force to the one already expressed.

The extreme case of detachment is the so-called syntactic split, when one structural unit is represented by several utterances in speech.

E.g. rheme rheme rheme

He wanted me to go to see him. In London. To fix things up.

Another prosodic phenomenon, which is relevant to expression of FSP, is emphatic stress. It is used to give to an element contrasting it to another one. The contrasted word becomes the rheme of the sentence.

E.g.

Give me the notebook. Give me the notebook. Give me the notebook.
Pragmatic means

An important place among the pragmatic means belongs to pronouns and articles, which help to point out some thing. The indefinite article and adverbs are used as intensifiers and are rhematic in character.

E.g.

Even Peter didn’t notice the difference. Peter didn’t even notice the difference.

Special constructions can signal theme-rheme relations.

  1. There is. This construction usually introduces new information.
    E.g. There was a cold, bitter taste in the air.

  2. Sentences with emphatic it.
    E.g. It was yesterday that I saw her.

  3. Three-member passive constructions.
    E.g. The door was opened by Alice.


Word order

A certain role in pointing out FSP is played by syntactic word order. It is believed that in neutral style the rheme usually follows the theme. Thus the communicative dynamism increases towards the end of the sentence.

E.g. Came a beautiful autumn day.


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