Logo GenDocs.ru

Поиск по сайту:  


Загрузка...

Ответы по теоретической фонетике - файл 1.doc


Ответы по теоретической фонетике
скачать (230 kb.)

Доступные файлы (1):

1.doc230kb.23.11.2011 17:17скачать

содержание
Загрузка...

1.doc

  1   2   3
Реклама MarketGid:
Загрузка...

Собственность группы 080708, все права защищены ©

1.Phonetics as a science.

Ph. Is not a separate, independent science. Ph. Is an independent brahch of linguistic like lexecology, grammar and stylistics. It studies the sound matter, its aspects and functions. Ph. formulates the rules of pronounciation for separate sounds and sound combinations.

Through the system of rules of reading Ph is connected with grammar and helps to pronaunce correctly singular and plural forms of nouns, the past tense forms and past participles of English regular verbs (d is pronaunced after voiced cons., t is pronaunced after voiceless cons. Wish-wished, id is pronaunced after t want-wanted, s is pronaunced after voiceless cons., z is after voiced cons. and iz after sibilants (свистящие)).

Sound interchange is another manifestation of the connection of Ph with grammar, e.g. this connection can be observed in the category of number. Thus the interchange of f/v, s/z, th/the helps to differenciate singular and plural forms of such words as basis- bases, and also man-men, foot-feet. Vowel interchange is connected with the tense forms of irregular verbs (sing-sang-sung). Vowel interchange can also help to distinguish between: 1) nouns and verbs (bath-bathe), 2) adj and nouns (hot-heat), 3) verbs and adj (moderate-moderate), 4) nouns and nouns (shade-shadow), 5) nouns and adj (type-typical). Vowel interchange can also be observed in onomatopoetic compaunds (звукоподражательные сложные слова): hip-hop, flap-flop, chip-chop. Consonants can interchange in different parts of speech, e.g. in nouns and verbs (extent-extend, mouth-mouth).

Ph is also connected with grammar through its intonation component. Sometimes intonation alone can serve to single out the logical predicate.( ‘he came home, he ‘came home, he came ‘home). Pausation may also perform a differentiatory function. If we compare 2 similar sentences pronaunced with different places of pause, the meaning will be different.

Ph is also connected with lexicology. It is only due to the presence of stress in the right place, that we can distinguish certain nouns from verbs (formed by convercion): ‘object-ob’ject.

Homographs can be differentiated only due to pronaunciation, because they are identical in spelling: bow(ou луг)-bow(au поклон), row(ou ряд)-row(au шум).

Due to the position of word accent we can distinguish between homonymous words and word groups, e.g. ‘blackbird-black ‘bird.

Ph is also connected with stylistics; first of all through intonation and its components: speech melody, utterance (произнесение) stress, rythm, pausation and voicetember which serves to express emotions.

Ph is also connected with stylistics through repetition of words, phrases and sounds. Repetition of this kind serves the basis of rythm, rhyme and alliteration. The repetition of identical or similar sounds, which is called alliteration, helps to impart ( передавать) a melodic effect to the utterance and to express certain emotions.

^ Theoretical significance of Ph is connected with the further development of the problem of the study and description of the Ph system of a national language and different languages, the study of the correspondences between them, the description of changes in the Ph system of languages.

Practical significance of Ph is connected with teaching foreign languages, speech correction, teaching deaf-mutes, film doubling.
^ 2.Principal pecularities of General American vowels.

  1. no opposition between historically long and historically short.

  2. [i] may be obscured as in rabbit [rэеbэt]

  3. [έ] – lower than the RP [e]

  4. [эе] – long, mostly nasaliezed, may turn into [e] as in marry, [эе] may be used instead of [a:], ask, past

  5. [3] - retroflex какуминальный согласный in medial and terminal position, bird, better

  6. [i:] – ‘barred’ препятствовать [i] in sister, horses

  7. [a] instead of[o], doll, rob

  8. [o]instead of [o:] as in law

  9. [Λ] turns into [3r], e.g. [h3ri] – hurry.

  10. in GA the distinction between monopthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent последовательный.


3. the branches of Ph. Onomotopoeia.

Onomatopoeia – a combination of sounds which imitate sounds produced in nature, is one more example of the connection between ph and stylistics:jinckle, chatter, babble, crash, bang. The study of Ph phenomena from the stylistic point of view is phonostylistics.

Ph has the following branches: 1) articulatory (physiologocal) and perceptive (auditory); 2) acoustic; 3) functional (linguistic).

^ Articulatory and perceptive investigation of speech sounds is done on the basis of a good knowledge of the voice and sound producing mechanisms, their structure and work– physiology and psychology.

Acoustic properties of sounds, that is, quantity, or length, tamber,intensity (сила), pitch, temporal factor are investigated by the acoustic and auditory branch of phonetics.

The functional properties of phonemes, syllables, accent and intonation are investigated by means of special linguistic methods.
^ 4. Principal pecularities of General American cons – s.

1. voiceless, fricative, labiovelar[ʍ]

2. the GA [r] is more sonorous than the RP [r]. It is retroflex.

3. [l] – predominantly преимущественно dark

4. [t] – short, voiced, intermediate between [d] and [t]

5. glottal stop ?

6. [h] – voiced in intervocalic position, lost initially in unsterssed or weak forms within внутри a phrase.

7. [ju] may change into [t∫, dЗ ] in due, tune

8. [∫] – vocalized in asia

9. nasal twang налет as in man.
^ 5.The first component of the Ph system of English

The Ph sys of Eng is a systemic combination of all the 4 components of the sound matter, which constitute the material forms of all the morphems, words, phrases and sentences and serve a speaker of the lang to express his thoughts, feelings, emotions.

^ The first component of the Ph structure of English is the sys of its segmental phonemes existing in the material form of their alophones constituted by the spectral, fundamental frequency, force and temporal components of the sound matter of lang in various combinations.

The systemic character of the phonemic component is reflected in various classifications of its phonemes in which the letters are devided first into 2 fundamental sound types – vowels and consonants – with futher subdivisione of each sound type according to the principles of vowel and cons classifications.

The phonemic component of the Ph structure of the E lang manifests itself not only in the sys of its phonemes as discrit (разрозненный) isolated units, but also in combinations of their allophones occuring in words and at the junction of words.

The combinations of allophones are also systemic in character, the allophones of the phoneme occure only in definite possitions, e.g. the E sounds [u, ] never occure at the beginning of a word, whereas the sounds [эе, h] never occure at the end of E word. There is not a single Russian word, which begins with the vowel [ы].

A typical combination of cons sounds that may occure at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a word is called a cons cluster, the combination of vowels is sometimes refered to as a vowel chane. Clusters and chanes also occure in definit positions. Thus, the E clusters – [tl,dl] never occure at the beginning of words, whereas the similar Rus clusters [Тл,дл] never occure at the end of words, e.g. sadle, длань.

The occurence of the allophones of a phoneme in different positions in a word is called the distribution. Since morphemes, words, phrases and sentences consist of combinations of speech sounds which articulations merge with and interpenitrate (взаимопроникают) each other. It is also systemic in character because lang-s have regular rules of effecting articulatery vowel cons transitions, CV transitions, CC transitions, VV tran.

E.g. the character of the E short stressed vowels in an instance of effecting a VC trans, which is characteristic of E and isn’t used in Russian because Rus vowels are free [pen-i], [пе-ни].

The aspiration of E plosives [p,t,k] imidiatelly before a stressed vow and the unaspirated pronounsiation of the Rus coutyparts in thesame position as well as the politalisation of cons before front high vowels in Rus and the nonpalatalisied articulation of E cons in the same position are instances of 2 different ways of effecting CV transition, e.g. [phic], [пик].

CC tran may serve the loss of plosion by an E plosive immideately before another plosive and the retension (сохранение) of plosion by its Rus countypart, e.g. [эеcht], [акт].

2 different ways of effecting a VV tran maybe illustrated by the presence and absence of the glotal stop(твердый приступ) between vowels, e.g. the apple. Thus, the phonemic component of the Ph sys of E has 3 aspects:

1) The sys of its phonemes as discrit isolated units which may occure in speech as isolated sounds constituting monophonemic words and sometimes even sentences;

2) the distribution of the allophones of the phonemes

3) the methods of joining speech sounds together or the methods of effecting VC, CV, CC, VV transitions.
^ 6.The articulatory and acoustic aspects of the E speech sounds. the power mechanism. the vibrator mech
The articulation of every speech sound and the transition from the articulation of 1 sound to the articulation of another are effected and controlled by the action of the muscles situated in the organs of speech involved. These muscles are activated by impulses sent from the brain. Some linguists such as Щерба and his follower Мутусевич associate the articulatory aspect of speech sounds with their biological aspect. On the one hand, the human brain is the original source of speech, and on the other, it perceives speech sounds coming from the external world.

Speech is impossible without these 4 mechanisms:

1the power mechanism

2the vibrator mech

3the resonator mech

4the obstructer mech

1) The function of the power mech consists in the supply of energy in the form of air preasure and in regulating the force of the air stream. The pow mech includes the following organs of respiration:

1 the diaphragm

2 the lungs

3 the brunchi

4 the windpipe

5 the glottis – the opening between the vocal chords

6 the larynx

7 the mouth cavity

8 the nasal cavity

Inhalation takes place because the chest expends due to the action of the diaphragm and chest muscles. As the result of this expansions the air pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the pressure of the surrounding atmospheric air and the later rushes into the lungs and fills them, so that the pressure is equalized.

Then the diaphragm and the chest muscles relaxed. The lungs are contracted (стянуты), the air pressure in them becomes greater than the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere and the air which is in the lungs rushes out forming a stream which passes through the bronchi, the wind pipe, the glottis and the mouth or hazel cavities. This is exhalation. Thus the process of breathing consists of 2 alternating phases: inhalation, exhalation.

2) The air stream provided by the lungs undergoes import modifications in the upper stages of the respiratory tract. First of all it passes through sets into action vibrator mech. Which is posed (находится) in the larynx. As the air is exhaled from the lungs it is fed under pressure into the larynx through the wind pipe. In addition to constituting the bases of the spectral and pitch components, the vocal cords as part of the vibr mech participate in forming its intensity component as well.

^ 7. The second component of the Ph system of English

The second component is the syllabic structure of words. The syllabic structure of words has 2 aspects:

  • syllable formation

  • syllable division (деление)

Both aspects are sometimes designed by the cover term syllabication.

Lang-s may differ from one another both in syllable formation and syl division. Differences in syl formation involve differences in the compacity (соединение) of speech sounds to form syl in different positions. E.g. the cons [m] is syll in the E word rythm, whereas the similar Rus sound [м] is nonsyllabic in the same position in the Rus equivalent of the same word ритм.

Differences in syllabic division involve differences in the position of the point of syllable division or the syllasbic boundary and in the types of the resulting syllables mainly open and closed, e.g. [mani] in which the 1 syllable is closed and [мани] in which the 1 syll is pen.

In E differences in syl division may perform a distinctive function.
^ 8.The articulatory and acoustic aspects of the E speech sounds. the resonator mech. the obstructer mech.
3) The air stream heading past through the larynx is now subject to further modification according to the shape assumed by the superglottal cavities of the pharynx and mouth and according to weather the nasal cavity is brought into action or not. So the resonator mech consists of the pharynx, the larynx, and the nasal cavity.

4) The obstructer mech consists of the tongue, the lips, the teeth, the soft palate with the uvula, the hard palate, the alveolar ridge.

The 4 mechanisms: the power, vibrator, resonator and the obstr work simultaneously and each speech sound is the result of the simultaneous work of all of them.
^ 9. The third and the forth components of the Ph system of English
The third component is the acsentual structure of its words as items of vocabulary.

The exentual structure of words has 3 aspects:

1.the physical nature of word acsent

2.the position of the acsent in dissyllabic and polysyllabic words.

3.the degrees of word acsent.

The physical nature of word acsent involves the use components of the sound matter or a combination of them to make a syllable in a word more promonent than the other syllables in it and pronounce a monosyllabic word with the same acustic characteristics which would make it most prominent if it were the acsented syllable of a dissyllabic or polysyllabic word, e.g. [po:t], [impo:t].

The position of the acsent of different degrees in dissylabic and polysyllabic words is an extremely important aspect. Especially in one with the socalled free word acsent, a lang in which the acsent may fall on any syllable in different words. as is the case in E and Russian, e.g. ‘dictionary, ho’tel, яблоко, звезда. In such lang-s word acsent performes not only the constitutive and recognitive functions, but also the word distinctive and form distinctive function, e.g. ‘import, im’port, ‘руки, ру’ки.

The 4th component is the international structure of sentences in it. International being understood in the broad sence.
10. the main principles of all current articulatory classifications of vow.
2 main principles of all currant articulatory classifications of vowels are based on the movements and positions of the tongue. In describing and classifying vowels the following parts of the tongue are referred to because of their great importance, as resonance modifiers:

1 the front of the tongue, which lays opposite the hard palate

2 the back of the tongue, which lays opposite the soft palate

3 the center of the tongue, which is the region where the front and the back meet.

The tip and blade of the tongue don’t play separate roles in vowel production. The complex movement of the tongue provides an articulatory bases for classifying vowels:

1) according to the horizontal movement of the tongue

2) according to the simultaneously vertical movements of the tongue.
11. different opinions on the nature of the phoneme and its definition.

  1. Бодуэн-де-Куртене defined the phoneme as a physical image of a sound.

  2. The abstractional conception on the phoneme was originated by Фердинанд де Соссюр, the danish linguist Hjemslev. The abst view regards the phoneme independant of the phonemic properties.

  3. Трубецкой, Блумфилд, Jacobson viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound units by which meanings may be differentiated. They stated that the features of the phoneme involved in the differentiation of words are called distinctive.

  4. The physical view on the phoneme was originated by Jhones. He defined the phneme as a family of sounds, showing similarities. No member of the family can occur in the same phonetic context asany other member. This view was shared by Bloch and Treiger.

  5. Щерба was the first to define the phoneme as a real, independent distinctive unit, which manifests itself in the form of allophones. Vasiliev developed his theory and wrote that a phoneme is a dialectical unity of 3 aspects: 1. material, real and objective, 2. abstractional, generalized, 3. functional. It serves to perform the following functions: constitutive, distinctive, recognitive. Vasiliev states that phoneme is material, real and objective, because it really exists in the material form of speech sounds, allophones. It is an objective reality , existing independently from our will or intention. It is an abstraction, because we make it from concrete realizations for classificatory purposes.


^ 12. Articulatory differences betw vow, cons, sonorants.

Articulatory differences between vowels, cons, and sonorants depend on the 3 articulatory criteria:

1the presence or absence of an articulation abstraction to the air stream in the larynx or the super glottal cavities.

2The concentrated or defused character or muscular tension

3The force of exhalation.

On the basis of this criteria cons-s may be defined as sounds in the production of which:

1 there is an articulatory abstraction to the air stream

2 muscular tension is concentrated in the place of abstraction

3 exhaling force is rather strong.

Vowels may be defind as sounds in the production of which there is:

  1. no artic abstraction to the air stream

  2. muscular tension is defused

  3. the exhalation force is rather weak.

Sonorants are sounds intermediate between noise cons-s and vowels, because they have features common to both. There is an obstruction but not narrow enough to produce noise. Muscular tension is concentrated in the place of obstruction but the exhaling force is rather weak. E sonorants are: [m, n, l, r, w, j, ŋ].
^ 13. Phonemic variants or allophones

Shcherba stated that in actual speech we utter a much greater variety of sounds than we are aware of, which are capable of distinguishing the meaning and the form of words. These sound types should be included into the classification of phonemes and studied as differentiatory units of the lang. The actually pronounced speech sounds are variants or allophones of phonemes. Allophones are realized in concrete words. They have phonetic similarity, at the same time they differ in some degree and are incapable of differentiating words, e.g. in speech we pronounce not the sound type [t] which is asperated, alveolar, forelingual, apical, occlusive, plosive, voiceless-fortis – according to the classificatory definition, but one of its variants, e.g. labialized in the word twice, dental in the word nineth, post-alveolar in try and so on.

Phonemic variants or allophones are very important for lang teaching, because they are pronaunced in actual speech and though they their mispronounciation doesn’t influence the meaning, their misuse makes a person’s speech sound as foreign.

The variants used in actual speech are called subsidiary. Susidiary allophones can be positional and combinatory. Posit alloph are used in certain positions traditionally, e.g. the Eng [l] is realized in actual speech as a positional alloph: it is clear in the initial position and dark (твердый) in terminal position, e.g. let and mill. Combinatory allophones appear in the process of speech and result from the influence of the phoneme upon another.


^ 14. Sentence stress, or accent

Sentence stress is a greater prominance of words which are made more prominant in the intonational group. The prominance of accented words is achieved through the greater force of utterance and changes in the direction of voice pitch.

The difference between stress and accent is based on the fact that in the case of str, the dominant perceptual component is loudness. In the case of accent it is pitch.

Nuclear sress is the strongest- it carries the most important information. Non-nuclear stresses are subdivided into full and partial. Full stress occurs only in the head of intonational group, partial stress occurs also in the prehead and tail.

Nouns, adj, numerals, interjections, demonstative pronouns, emphatic pronouns, possesive Притяжательный pronouns (absolut forms), interrogative вопросительный pronouns, indefinite pronouns: somobody, someone, something (used as subject), indef negat pronouns: no, none, no one nobody, indef pronouns some, any (expressing quality), deferminatives: all, each, every, other, either, both, proclitics: much, many, a little, a few, notional verbs, auxiliary вспомогательный verbs (negat contracted forms), two-word prepositions, two-word conjunctions, particles:only, also, too, even, just are usually stressed.

The words that are usually unstressed: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, relative pronouns, possesive pronouns(conjoint form), indef pronouns: somebody, someone, something, anyone ( used as object), indef pronouns some, any ( when expressing quantity), auxiliary verbs (affirmative form), one-word prep and conjunctions, articles, particles: there, to., modal verbs (contracted forms and general questions are exceptions).

The meaning of the verbs may, should must changes depending on whether they are stressed or unstressed: you may go.

Stress in utterance providethe basis for understanding the content, they help to perform constitutive, distinctive, indentificatory function of intonation.

^ 15. Articulatery and physiological classification of E vowels.

I The main effects of lip rounding on the shape of the mouth:

a) to enlarge the oral cavity b) to diminish the size of the oral cavity.

According to the position of the lips vowels are classified into:

a) rounded

b) unrounded.

The E. rounded vowels are: <u>, <u:>, < o; o:>. The Russian vowels are protruded vowels –o, -y. The general pattern is that the front and open vowels are articulated with spread to neutral lip-position while back vowels have rounded lips.

II^ According to the position of the tongue. It can move forward and backward, it may be raised and low in the mouth cavity. Rus. scientists divide V. according to the

a)horizontal movements of the tongue.

b)vertical movements of the tongue.

a) When the bulk of the tongue moves backwards and the back part of the tongue is raised highest towards the hard palate, front V. are produced.

They are subdivided into:

- fully front –[i:,e,эе]

-front retracted втягивать [i]

In the production of centr. V. the tongue is almost flat. Central V. are [3:, ə, Λ].

b)According to the vertical movements of the tongue v. are subd-ed into:

  • high [I:, I, u:, u], Rus. [и, у, ы];

  • mid-open or half-open: [e, ə:, e(u), ə(a), ə], Rus. [э, о]

  • low-open: [Λ, эе, a(i), a(u), a:, о:, o(i)], Rus [a].

Each of the subclasses is subdiv. into V. of narrow variation, and v. of broad var-on:

- high narrow variation [i:],[u:]; Rus. [ы, и, у]

-high broad variation [i], [u]

- mid narrow variation [e, ə:, e(u)], Rus. [э]

- mid broad variation [eə, o: ə], Rus [o]

- law narrow var [Λ, o(i)]

-law broad variation [a:, o, эе, a(i), a(u)] Rus. [a]

The rus. [э] is on the boarderline between narrow and broad midvowels., [o] is on the boaderline between mid-open and open.
^ 16.Received Pronunciation. Changes of vow quality.

Standart pronunciation is the pronunciation governed by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral. The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation. In Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced.

The phoneme [i] is little more open in GA and retracted than in RP. In GA it is often obscured.

The sound [έ]is lower than the RP [e] and resembles походить [эе]

The GA [эе] differs from the RP [эе]: it is used in words in which the letter a is followed by a cons other than r(answer), in GA {e} is used instead of [эе]([keri])

The GA [a] is more front than the RP. In contrast to the RP [a] the GA [a] has a different distribution 9hop, rob, doll, before [,g] both [a], [o] (frog).
^ 17. Articulatery and physiological classification of E vowels. According to the degree of tenseness, length.

Accord to the degree of tenseness traditionally long vowels are defined as tense (напряженные) and short as lex (ослаблен). The tense and lex were introduced by Sweet. When the muscles of the lips, tongue, chicks and the back walls of the pharynx are tense, the vowels produced can be characterized as tense. When tense organs are relatively relaxed, lex vowels are produced. The Rus v – s are not differentiated according to the tenseness.

Eng v- s can be checked and unchecked. Checked v – s are those which occur in stressed closed syllables, ending in a fortis voiceless cons, e.g. [e] in bed, letter. The checked v – s are pronounced without any lessening in the force of utterance towards their end. Unchecked v – s are those, which occur terminally or are followed by a lenis voiced cons, e.g. [i:]. There are no checked v – s in Rus. All of them are unchecked.

According to the length Eng vowels are subdivided into long and short. Vowel length may depend on:

1position of the vowel in a word

2word stress

3the number of syllables in a word

4the character of the syllable structure

5sonority

1. positions of dependants of length can be illustrated by the following example [bi: - bid – bit]. In the terminal конец position a vowel is the longest it shortness before a voiced consonant, it is the shortest before a voiceless consonant.

2. a vowel is longer in a stressed syllable than in unstressed one: fOrecast - fourcAst.(прогноз – предсказывать погоду). In the verb [o] is shorter than in the noun, though it maybe pronounced with [o] equally long.

3. if we compare a one syllable word and a word consisting of more than one syllable, we may observe that similar vowels are shorter in a polysyllabic word. Thus in the word verse (стих) [3:] is longer than in university.

4. In words with V,CV,CCV type of syllable the vowel length is greater than in words with VC,CVC, CCVC type of syllable. Ex. [3:] is longer in err (ошибаться) (V type) than in Earn (VC type).

5. vowels of low sonority are longer than vowels of greater sonority. It is so because the speaker makes more affort to produce greater auditory effect, while pronouncing vowels of lower sonority thus making them longer. Ex. [i] is longer than [o], [i:] is longer than [a:]

Besides vowel length depends on the tempo of speech.
^ 18.received Pronouciation. Changes in cons quality.

The total number of the RP and GA cons differ in one phoneme [ʍ]. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of cons phonemes coicides.

The [r] is less sonorous in RP than in GA. The GA [h] is similar to the RP.The GA [h] is frequently voiced in intervicalic position. In words like concave, conclude, enclose, encourage Americans use {n}, the RP speakers – [n], [].
^ 19. Articulatery and physiological classification of E vowels. According to the stability of articulation.

The stability of articulation is the principle of vow classification which is not singled out by British and American phoneticians. It is the principle of the stability of the shape, volume and the size of the mouth resonator. According to this principle v are subdivided into:

1.monophtongs-simple v

2.diftongs-complex v

1)English mon-gs are pronounced with or less stable lip, tongue, mouth walls position. They are [ I: i e эе a: o 3: u u: Λ o: ə ].

2)Definition of a diphthong as a single-sound is based on the instability of the second element. The first element of a diphthongs is the nuclear, the second is the glide. A diphthong can be falling, when the nucleous is stronger than the glide, and rising, when the glide is stronger than the nucleous. When both elements are equal such diphthongs are called level. Eng. Diph-s are falling with the glide towards:[i]-[ei ai oi]

Dif-s [ei eu oi ai au]-are called closing dif-s, dif-s[3e ie ue]-are called centring, acoording to the articulation of the 2 element.

There are 2 v in English[I: u:] that may have a diphthongal glide where they have full-length (in open syllables) and before lenis or nasal cons (bi:-bi:d-bi:n.). Russian v [э о] are diphtongoids.

20. Assimilation.

In the process of speech, that is in the process of transition from the articulatory work of one sound to the articulatory work of the neighbour­ing one, sounds are modified. These modifications can be conditioned:

a) by the complementary distribution of phonemes, e. g. the fully back /u:/ becomes back-advanced under the influence of the preceding mediolingual sonorant /j/ in the words tune, nude. In the word keen /k/ is not so back as its principal variant, it is ad­vanced under (be influence of the fully front /i;/ which follows it:

b) by the contextual variations in which phonemes may occur at the junction of words, e. g. the alveolar phoneme /n/ in the combination in the is assimilated to the dental variant under the influence of /ð/ which
follows it;

c) by the style of speech: official or rapid colloquial. E. g. hot muffinsmay turn into

Assimilation is a modification of a consonant under the influence of a neighbouring consonant. When a consonant is modified under the influence of an adjacent vow­el or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommodation, e. g. tune, keen, lea, cool.

When one of the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid or care­less speech this process is called elision, e. g. a box of matches may be pronounced without [v].

Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present-day pro­nunciation is called living. Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history of the language is called historical.

Assimilation can be:

1progressive, when the first of the two sounds affected by assimila­tion makes the second sound similar to itself, e. g. in desks the sounds /k/ make the plural inflection s similar to the voiceless /k/.

2regressive, when the second of the two sounds affected by assimi­lation makes the first sound similar to itself, e. g. in the combination at the the alveolar /t/ becomes dental, assimilated to the interdental / ð / which follows it;

^ 3double, when the two adjacent sounds influence each other, e.g. twice /t/ is rounded under the influence of /w/ and /w/ is partly devoiced under (he influence of the voiceless /t/.

When the two neighbouring sounds arc affected by assimilation, it may influence: 1) the work of the vocal cords; 2) the active organ of speech; 3) the manner of noise production; 4) both: the place of articula­tion and the manner of noise production.

l)Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords is observed when one of the two adjacent соседний consonants; becomes voiced under the influence of the neighbouring voiced consonant, or voiceless — under the influ­ence of the neighbouring voiceless consonant.

In the process of speech the sonorants /m, n, 1, r; j, w/ are partly devoiced before a vowel, preceded by the voiceless consonant phonemes /s, p, t, k/, e. g. plate, slowly, twice, ay. This assimilation is not observed in the most careful styles of speech.

2) The manner of noise production is affected by assimilation in cas­es of a) lateral plosion and b) loss of plosion or incomplete plosion. The lateral plosion takes place, when a plosive is followed by /1/. In this case the closure for the plosive is not released till the off-glide for the second [l]. Incomplete plosion takes place in the clusters a) of two similar plosives like /pp,pb, tt, td, kk, kg/, or b) of two plosives with different points of articulation like:/kt/,/dg/, /db/, /tb/. So there is only one explosion for the two plosives.

3) Assimilation affects the place of articulation and the manner of noise production when the plosive, alveolar /tl is followed by the post-alveolar /r/. For example, in the word trip alveolar 1t1 be­comes post-alveolar and has a fricative release.
21. general American pronunciation

In the USA the most widespread type of lang is GA. Like RP in GB GA in America is the social standard: it is religionally neutral, it is used by radio, by TV, in science, it is spoken by educated Americans.

1no opposition between historically long and historically short.

2[i] may be obscured as in rabbit [rэеbэt]

3[έ] – lower than the RP [e]

4[эе] – long, mostly nasaliezed, may turn into [e] as in marry, [эе] may be used instead of [a:], ask, past

5[3] - retroflex какуминальный согласный in medial and terminal position, bird, better

6[i:] – ‘barred’ препятствовать [i] in sister, horses

7[a] instead of[o], doll, rob

8[o]instead of [o:] as in law

9[Λ] turns into [3r], e.g. [h3ri] – hurry.

10in GA the distinction between monopthongs and diphthongs is not very consistent последовательный.
Principal pecularities of General American cons – s.

1. voiceless, fricative, labiovelar[ʍ]

2. the GA [r] is more sonorous than the RP [r]. It is retroflex.

3. [l] – predominantly преимущественно dark

4. [t] – short, voiced, intermediate between [d] and [t]

5. glottal stop ?

6. [h] – voiced in intervocalic position, lost initially in unsterssed or weak forms within внутри a phrase.

7. [ju] may change into [t∫, dЗ ] in due, tune

8. [∫] – vocalized in asia

9. nasal twang налет as in man.


^ 22.DIFFERENCES IN THE ARTICULATION BASES OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN VOWELS

1) The lips. In the production of Russian vowels the lips are consid­erably protruded and rounded: /о, у/. In the articulation of the similar English vow protrusion does not take place.

(2) The bulk of the tongue. In the articulation of the English vowels the bulk of the tongue occupies more positions than in the production of the Russian vowels. When the the tongue moves in the horizontal direction it may occupy a fully front and a front-retracted, a fully back and a back-advanced position. Each of the three vertical positions of the tongue (high, mid, low) in English is subdivided into a narrow and broad variety. Rus vow are classified accord­ing to the vertical movement of the tongue they may be divided into: high — /и, ы, у/, mid — /э, о/ and low — /a/. According to the horizontal movement of the tongue Rus­sian vowels may be subdivided into: front — /и, э/, central — /ы, a/ and back — /o, y/.

(3) The principle of the degree of tenseness in vowel classification is connected with the unchecked and checked character of the vowels.

(4) The length of the vowels. Long vowels in English are considered to be tense. There are no long vowels which can be opposed to short vowels in the Russian language.

(5) The stability of articulation. There are monophthongs and diphthongoids in the Russian vowel system, but there are no diphthongs.

(6) There are 6 vowel phonemes in Russian and 20 in English.

^ Given below are English vowels which have no counterparts in Russian:

(1) long and short vowels /i: — i/, /o: — o/, /u: — u/, /з:- з /, /a: — /\/;

(2) slightly rounded, but not protruded vowels /u:, o:/;

(3) vowels articulated with the "flat" position of the lips /i:, i, e, ei/;

(4) very low vowels, such as /æ, o, a:/;

(5) front-retracted /i/ and back-advanced /u, a:/;

(6) central or mixed /з- з:/;

(7) checked and free vowels /siti/ /'m/\ni/ Russian сити, мани;

(8) diphthongs /ei, ai, oi, iз, аu, ou, εэ, uэ/.

An articulating English vowels Russian students can make the following mistakes:

(1) they do not observe the quantitative character of the long vowels;

(2) do not observe the qualitative difference in the articulation of such vowels as /i: — i/, /u: — u/, /o:- o/,

(3) replace the English vowels /i:, о, u, æ, / by the Russian vowels / и, о, у, а, э/;

(4) pronounce /i:, i, e, ei/ without the "flat position" of the lips;

(5) soften consonants which precede front vowels

(6) articulate /o, о:, u, u:, эu/ with the lips too much rounded and protruded;

(7) make the sounds /æ, o/ more narrow similarly to the Russian /э, о/;

(8) make both elements of the diphthongs equally distinct;

(9) pronounce initial vowels with a glottal stop.
^ 23. Received pron.

Standart pronunciation is the pronunciation governed by the orthoepic norm. It is the pronunciation of educated circles. It is used by radio, television, religionally neutral. The social standart within Britain is the so-called recieved pronunciation. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learning establishments of the Rus Federation. In Eng we distinguish conservative, general, advanced.

The phoneme [i] is little more open in GA and retracted than in RP. In GA it is often obscured.

The sound [έ]is lower than the RP [e] and resembles походить [эе]

The GA [эе] differs from the RP [эе]: it is used in words in which the letter a is followed by a cons other than r(answer), in GA {e} is used instead of [эе]([keri])

The GA [a] is more front than the RP. In contrast to the RP [a] the GA [a] has a different distribution hop, rob, doll, before [,g] both [a], [o] (frog).

The total number of the RP and GA cons differ in one phoneme [ʍ]. The rest of the RP and GA inventory of cons phonemes coicides.

The [r] is less sonorous in RP than in GA. The GA [h] is similar to the RP.The GA [h] is frequently voiced in intervicalic position. In words like concave, conclude, enclose, encourage Americans use {n}, the RP speakers – [n], [].
  1   2   3



Скачать файл (230 kb.)

Поиск по сайту:  

© gendocs.ru
При копировании укажите ссылку.
обратиться к администрации
Рейтинг@Mail.ru