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10 тем по английскому языку - файл 1.docx


10 тем по английскому языку
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About Myself

My name is Nastya, I’m seventeen years old. I’m a student of the Pedagogical Institute. I’m living close from institute and it takes me about fifteen minutes. We work a lot at English and I usually have not much time to do something else. Let me to describe my appearance. I have straight blond hair by nature, but I dyed it two years ago and now I have black not very thick hair, it is neither long, nor shot. I also have a fringe. I usually part my hair in the middle. My eyebrows are fair and thick. I have green eyes and they say I’ve got it from my father. It seems I have a turned-up nose, full lips and flat chin. I’m of medium height, my shoulders are neither broad nor narrow. I often hear that I look old for my age. I’m a very positive and friendly, I’m easy-going and sociable. I try to be patient, and I think I’m a selfish person, just a little bit of course. Then I want to tell you how I spend my free time. One of my hobbies is playing the guitar. To tell the truth it is very important for me. I like drawing, sometimes write poetry, but it is a secret. I’m also fond of reading, I enjoy books of different genres: horrors and historical novels, detective story and science fiction. Among my favorite writers are Jack London, Tomas Mayne Reid, Arthur Conan Doyle, Valentin Caverin and so on. I like to ride a horse, I’m fond of horses and I try to go to the race course twice a week. There are many beautiful race and saddle horses. I also like to spend free time with my friend. In winter we usually go skating, when the weather is hot we go to the river. We like to swim and sunbath on the beach. Sometimes we go to my place and listen to music.

My family is not very large. There are three of us: my mother, my father and myself. My mother’s name is Sveta. She is in her late thirties. She has blond wavy hair, it is very shot and thick. Her eyes are blue and her eyebrows are thin. She has a plump face and her complexion is fair. She has soft features and dimple in her cheeks. She is not tall and she looks her ages. My mother is a woman of character, she is a very sociable person, and she is kind-hearted and patient. I always share my problems with my mother. I think I took after her. She is a saleswoman. My father’s name is Vadim. He is two years older than my mother, so he is about forty. He has short dark hair and greenish-grey eyes. His nose is a little turned-up. He has swarthy complexion, an oval face and a large forehead. His features are soft and regular. He is taller than my mother and he is a little stout. He looks his age. He is a pleasant person to deal with and he is as good as gold. He has a sense of humor. We used to spend much time together. His favorite entertainment is fishing, he often goes to a garage where he repairs his car. He is fond of it, he can spend hours for his car. I love him very much and it is mutual. We usually used to play the chess in the evening. Actually I never win. We usually go shopping with my mother. My mother is a woman of taste and she always helps me to choose clothes.

My nearest relatives are my younger sister Lera and my grandparents. My sister is in her early teens. She has long straight blond hair and a fringe. She usually parts her hair on her left side. Her eyes are brown, her lips are thin and her complexion is swarthy. She has a pretty face and a dimple in her right cheek. She is a tall slender girl. I think, she looks like her mother, my aunt, Mariya by name. She is a cheerful, she is full of energy all the time. She is my little friend, I very love her. She lives in a village and I see little of her, but in summer 

she usually stays with us and we spend much time together. She swims like a brick, so we often go to the river.

Next I tell you about my friends. I’m happy to have a lot of friends, some of them close, some are less, but all of them make my life interesting. I appreciate friendship. My best friend is a nineteen-year-old girl, Marina by name. She is a second-year student of Technical Institute, which is situated in Balakovo. She has fair streight hair, her eyes are grey and her face is long. She is taller than I. She is very witty and positive, she is an incurable optimist, she has a sense of humor and an inviting smile. We never quarrel, there is a mutual understanding between us. Now she is far but we don’t stop to communicate.

In our family everybody has his own duties. For example, my mother usually cleans the clothes, cooks food, but my father helps her not as often as she wants. As for me, I have my own duties too. I always clean the floors, wash the dishes, water the flowers and feed my cat. Sometimes I also go shopping.

^ The Average British Family.

The average British family lives in a semi-detached house with a garden in the South of England. They own their house, which is situated in the suburbs of a large town. The house has three bedrooms. On average they have two children and a pet. The family drives a two-year-old Ford.

The father of the family works in the office of an engineering company for 40 hours a week and earns & 200 per week. He starts at 9.00 in the morning and finishes at 5.30 in the evening. He goes to work by car, which takes him 20 minutes. He doesn’t particularly like his job, there are chances of promotion.

The mother works in a service industry for three days a week and earns & 95. She works locally and goes there by bus. She quite likes her job as it gets her out of the house, she meets people, and it is close to her children’s school.

The children go to a state school which is a few miles from home. A special bus comes to pick them up every day. They are at school from 9.00 to 3.30.

The most popular evening entertainment is watching television or video. After that, the next most popular activity is visiting friends, going to the cinema or a restaurant, or going to the pub. The most popular hobby is gardening and the most popular sports are fishing, football and tennis.

The Average American Family.



Most American families consist of a mother, a father and three or four children living at home. There may be relatives - grandparents, cousins, aunts, uncles and in-laws in the same community, but American families usually have their own households. This familiar structure is known as a nuclear family. It is unusual for members of the family ©flier than the husband, wife and children to live together. Occasionally an aging grandparent may live with me family, but this arrangement is usually not considered desirable. Although the nuclear family unit is economically independent of the rest of the family, members of the whole family group often maintain close kinship ties. Visiting between parents and their married children and between married sisters and brothers is frequent when they live close to each other. If they live in different communities, they keep in touch by writing letters and by telephone.

In American family the husband and wife usually share important decision making. When the children are old enough, they participate as well. Foreign observers are frequently amazed by me permissiveness of American parents. The old rule that children should be seen and not heard is rarely followed, and children are often allowed to do what they wish without strict parental control. The father seldom expects his children to obey him without question, and children are encouraged to be independent at an early age. Some people believe that American parents carry this freedom too far. Young people are expected to break away from their parental families by the time they have reached their late teens or early twenties. Indeed not to do so is often regarded as a failure, a kind of week dependent.

My Flat

My family and I live in Balakovo. Our town is small, but very beautiful and clean. It is full of modern industrial buildings. We live in Fakel Socialisma Street. Our house is not very modern, it is a four-storeyed building. Our flat is on the fourth floor. Our windows overlook the yard, where children usually play and communicate, and the street, which is line with trees. Our 

flat consists of four rooms: a kitchen, a bathroom, my own room and a living-room, which is also my parents’ room. There are almost all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, cold and hot water and a chute to carry rubbish down. Unfortunately, we haven’t got a lift, and it is a problem for my parents because we live on the highest floor and sometimes it is difficult to get to our flat. The floor is covered with linoleum in the kitchen and there are thick carpets ion the floor in the living-room and in my room. All the rooms are papered with wallpapers of different colours.

The living-room is the largest room in the flat. It has a balcony. There is a sofa with two armchairs and a low table with a TV-set at the left wall. To the right of the sofa there is a bookcase and a few shelves. Next to the bookcase is a table with some chairs around it.

I have my own room. It is very cosy and I like it very much. It is smaller than the living-room and there is only one window in it. In this room there is my bed, a table with a computer, my writing table, where I usually do my homework, near it there is a bookcase full of books and journals. Next to it there is a dressing table with a big mirror and a wardrobe. In my opinion my room is the best room in our flat.

The kitchen is small, but handily arranged. There is a gas-stove, a frig, a deep sink, a table with some chairs around and three shelves where my mother keeps her pots and pans.

The bathroom is the smallest room in our flat. It has a bath, a shower bath, a mirror and a washer. My home is my castle and I like my flat very much.

In our family everybody has his own duties. For example, I wash the dishes, clean the floor, and water the flowers. Sometimes I cook and buy food, I’m not a good cook, but my second course is always tasty. My mother usually cleans the clothes, goes shopping, cooks food, but my father helps her not so often as she wants. But he has his own duties at home. He helps to fix and repair some things when they are out of order.

^ American Space for Living.

A typical US house has two storeys. Upstairs there are several bedrooms and at list one bathroom. Children often have their own bedrooms. Extra rooms are used as a study or playrooms or guest bedrooms. Downstairs there is a kitchen, a living-room and a dining-room. There is also a bathroom or a half bath, which has 

only a toilet and a sink. Many houses have a porch, where people sit when the weather is hot. Americans take pride in their homes and like to show visitors round.

Bedrooms are usually considered the private space of the people, who sleep in them, and children are allowed a great deal freedom in their bedrooms. Parents usually knock before entering. Children are given the responsibility of cleaning the room, and the right to decide when that is necessary. This often leads to disagreement between parents and their children.

Most houses have air-conditioning. Central heating is standard, but many houses also have fireplaces, where wood can be burned.

^ The House of an Englishman.

Many families in London live in flats, but most people live in their own houses in the suburbs. Most of London’s suburban houses consist of two floors: the ground floor and the first floor. All in all there are six or seven rooms in the house.

On the ground floor there is a kitchen, a dining-room, a cosy sitting-room and a hall. In the hall you can see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas. A staircase leads from the hall to the landing on the first floor. On this floor there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory. On the top of the roof there are three chimneys.

In front of the house there is a small garden, in which they grow flowers: roses, tulips and so on. At the back of the house there is a much larger garden with a lawn and some fruit trees. They also have a vegetable garden, where they grow all kinds of vegetable, such as potatoes, tomatoes, cabbages, cauliflowers, onion and so on. At the side if the house there is a garage where they can keep their car. The garden is enclosed by a fence, with a gate in it.



The Custom of Having Meals in England.

The usual English meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. Breakfast comes first and is generally a bigger meal than the people have on the continent, though some English people like a continental breakfast of bread and butter and coffee. But the usual English breakfast is quite a big one. It includes cornflakes with sugar and milk, bacon and eggs, marmalade or jam, buttered toast and tea or coffee. For a change they have an egg or cheese or porridge.

Breakfast is followed by lunch. Englishmen usually have lunch at one o’clock. The working people in London usually find it impossible to come home for lunch. So they go to a cafe or a factory canteen. Lunch is usually not as big as breakfast. It is generally all kind of sandwiches, sometimes fish-and-chips or a meat dish with plenty of vegetables, tea, coffee, juice or milk.

Afternoon tea is taken at about 5 o’clock and can hardly be called a meal. It is a cup of tea with bread-and-butter and cake or biscuits.

In most well-to-do English houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day and it comes rather late, when the family gather at home after their work and studies. The evening meal is called dinner or supper depending on its size. Englishmen usually begin it with soup, followed by fish or some kind of meat with vegetables and potatoes, then fruit or coffee. In most houses this meal is the chief and the last one of the day.

Working people usually have supper in the evening. Supper is a light meal. It is a meat dish, followed by canned food or tea and cake. It is taken between 7 or 9 o’clock as a rule.

^ My favorite dish. Recipe.

Classic Chocolate Milk Shake

Serves 4. Time taken 1 hour and a half.

Ingredients:

1 1/2 cups sugar

1 cup water

1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

4 tablespoons milk

6 cups vanilla ice cream



Preparation:

Stir sugar and water in heavy medium saucepan over medium-low heat until sugar dissolves. Increase heat and bring to boil. Place cocoa in small bowl. Gradually whisk in sugar syrup. Return mixture to same saucepan. Boil 1 minute, whisking constantly. Pour into bowl. Whisk in vanilla and cool completely. Cover and chill until cold, at least 1 hour. (Syrup can be made 1 week ahead. Keep refrigerated.)

Pour 3 tablespoons chocolate syrup and 1 tablespoon milk into blender. Add 1 1/2 cups ice cream and blend until smooth. Pour into glass. Repeat in 3 more batches, using 3 tablespoons syrup, 1 tablespoon milk and 1 1/2 cups ice cream for each milk shake.

^ My favourite food

For some food is a source of pleasure, for others - a source of energy. For me food – is a pleasant source of energy. I think that pleasant food is healthy food. To my mind healthy food should be quite simple. I eat complicated dishes only in restaurants. My daily meals consist of the same dishes every day. First of all I would like to say that I do not eat animal meat at all. I prefer fish and other sea products. So in the morning I usually have some cottage cheese, then I have tea with two cheeseburgers. At dinner I have vegetable soup, a salad and fried fish. I do not have desserts, but only tea with lemon. For supper I have just a salad and then I eat fruit.

I love all kinds of milk products, especially kefir, cottage cheese and cheese. I prefer cheeses from Germany, France or Switzerland. As for sea products I love shrimps, salmon and trout. I like different kinds of salads, dressed with olive oil or sour cream. I also love all kinds of potato dishes. I usually drink down food with natural juices.

I prefer to have tea with bitter chocolate or home-made jams. As I do not change my daily dishes, I very seldom have stomach problems. Actually I think that the simpler food is, the better is its taste.

Well, of course, on weekends I want to try a new dish. If I have free time, I try to invent a new salad or find an interesting recipe. On weekends I let myself have good red dry wine. Well, many doctors say that red wine in reasonable quantities is very good for health.

I do not buy in shops ready or semi-manufactured food products, because this is unhealthy. It is better to spend some time cooking, than to have problems with overweight and heart.


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