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Аракин В.Д. (ред.) Практический курс английского языка - файл Arakin 5.doc


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ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

5 КУРС

Под редакцией В.Д. Аракина

Москва, Владос, 1999

UNIT ONE
TEXT ONE
THE PASSIONATE YEAR
By James Hilton
(Fragments)
James Hilton (1900— 1954) was born in England and educated at Cambridge where he wrote his first novel, "Catherine Herself". His first big success came with the publication of "Good-bye, Mr. Chips". It was dramatized and filmed. "Lost Horizon" published in 1933 was awarded the Hawthornden Prize. Some of his other books are: "We Are Not Alone" (1937), "Random Harvest" (1941), "Nothing So Strange" (1947), "Time and Time Again" (1953). A resident of the United States since 1935, he died in Long Beach, California.

(Kenneth Speed, B.A., a young Master at Millstead Boarding School for boys, was warned that the first night he takes prep1 he might be ragged2 as it was a sort of school tradition that they always tried to rag teachers that night.

Preparation for the whole school was held in Millstead Big Hall, a huge vault-like chamber in which desks were ranged in long rows and where Master in charge sat on high at a desk on a raised dais.)
Speed was very nervous as he took his seat on the dais at five to seven and watched the school straggling to their places. They came in quietly enough, but there was an atmosphere of subdued expectancy of which Speed was keenly conscious; the boys stared about them, grinned at each other, seemed as if they were waiting for something to happen. Nevertheless, at five past seven all was perfectly quiet and orderly, although it was obvious that little work was being done. Speed felt rather as if he were sitting on a powder-magazine, and there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break.

At about a quarter past seven a banging of desk-lids began at the far end of the hall.

He stood up and said, quietly, but in a voice that carried well: "I don't want to be hard on anybody, so I'd better warn you that I shall punish any disorderliness very severely."

There was some tittering, and for a moment or so he wondered if he had made a fool of himself.

Then he saw a bright, rather pleasant-faced boy in one of the back rows deliberately raise a desk-lid and drop it with a bang. Speed consulted the map of the desks that was in front of him and by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name to be Worsley. He wondered [13] how the name should be pronounced — whether the first syllable should rhyme with "purse" or with "horse". Instinct in him, that uncanny feeling for atmosphere, embarked him on an outrageously bold adventure, nothing less than a piece of facetiousness, the most dangerous weapon in a new Master's armoury, and the one most of all likely to recoil on himself. He stood up again and said: "Wawsley or Wurssley — however you call yourself — you have a hundred lines!"3

The whole assembly roared with laughter. That frightened him a little.' Supposing they did not stop laughing! He remembered an occasion at his own school when a class had ragged a certain Master very neatly and subtly by pretending to go off into hysterics of laughter at some trifling witticism of his.

When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hundred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk."

Again the assembly laughed, but there was no mistaking the respectfulness that underlay the merriment. And, as a matter of fact, the rest of the evening passed entirely without incident. After the others had gone, Worsley came up to the dais accompanied by the pleasant-faced boy who dropped the desk-lid. Worsley pleaded for the remission of his hundred lines, and the other boy supported him urging that it was he and not Worsley who had dropped the lid.

"And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pioneers."

They went away laughing.

That night Speed went into Clanwell's room for a chat before bedtime, and Clanwell congratulated him fulsomeTy on his successful passage of the ordeal.4 "As a matter of fact," Clanwell said, "I happen to know that they'd prepared a star benefit performance for
you but that you put them off, somehow, from the beginning. The [14] prefects5 get to hear of these things and they tell me. Of course, I don't take any official notice of them. It doesn't matter to me what plans people make — it's when any are put into execution that I wake
up. Anyhow, you may be interested to know that the members of School House6 subscribed over fifteen shillings to purchase fireworks which they were going to let off after the switches had been turned off! Alas for fond hopes ruined!"

Clanwell and Speed leaned back in their armchairs and roared with laughter.
Commentary

1. to take prep: to be in charge of preparation of lessons in a regular period at school.

2. to rag {coll.): to play practical jokes on; treat roughly.

3. You have a hundred lines: Copying text is a common penalty for misbehaviour in English and American schools.

4. ordeal: in early times, a method of deciding a person's guilt or innocence by his capacity to pass some test such as passing through fire, taking poison, putting his hand in boiling water, or fighting his accuser. It was thought that god would protect the innocent person (to submit to the ordeal by battle; ordeal by fire, etc.). Now it means any severe test of character or endurance, as to pass through a terrible ordeal. E.g. It was his turn to speak now, so he braced himself up for the ordeal.

5. prefects: in some English schools senior boys to whom a certain amount of authority is given.

6. House: (here) a boarding-house attached to and forming a portion of a public school. Also, the company of boys lodged in such a house. E.g. I'm as proud of the house as any one. I believe it's the best house in the school, out-and-out.
^ ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
Vocabulary Notes
1. subdue vt 1) conquer; overcome; bring under control, as to subdue nature 2) soften; make quiet or less strong, e.g. The enemy fire was subdued. Lunch was somewhat of an ordeal, all the present being subdued by the preceding scene. He was unusually subdued that night. Also: subdued light, spirits, voices, etc.
2. conscious a 1) aware, knowing, as to be conscious of pain, cold, etc., e.g. I'm conscious of my guilt (i.e. I know I've done wrong). The teacher should be conscious of any subtle change of atmosphere in his class (i.e. The teacher should feel and realize any change of atmosphere). She was far more politically conscious than her husband (i.e. She knew more about the political life and her estimation of it was more objective). 2) (of actions and feelings) realized by oneself, e.g. He spoke with conscious superiority (i.e. realizing that he was superior), -conscious (in compound words), as self-conscious, class-conscious, dress-conscious, etc., e.g. With a dress-conscious person clothes may become an obsession: he doesn't see even himself as an individual, but as a kind of tailor's dummy to hang the latest trophy on.

^ Note: Don't confuse conscious and conscientious, e.g. Being a most conscientious worker, she wondered how she should act in this kind of situation. Your paper is a truly conscientious piece of work.
3. grin vi/t 1) smile broadly and in such a way that the teeth can be seen (to express amusement, contempt or satisfaction), e.g. The boy grinned from ear to ear when I gave him the apple. He was grinning with delight, grin and bear it endure pain or trouble without complaint 2) express by grinning, e.g. He grinned his delight.

^ Grin n, e.g. There was a broad grin on his face. His sardonic grin aroused my anger.
4. orderly a 1) well arranged; in good order; tidy, as an orderly room, e.g. The books were ranged alphabetically on the orderly shelves. 2) peaceful; well behaved, as an orderly crowd (election, assembly, etc.) 3) [mil. use) concerned with carrying out orders, as the orderly officer, the orderly room. Ant. disorderly, e.g. He was arrested for disorderly conduct. The disorderly crowd straggled in the direction of the Town Hall.

Orderliness n, e.g. She made a mental note of the perfect orderliness and discipline at the lesson. Ant. disorderliness n, e.g. Speed said he would punish any disorderliness very severely.
5. Outrageous a shocking; beyond all reasonable limits; very cruel, immoral, offensive or insulting, as outrageous behaviour, e.g. This outrageous remark was followed by shocked silence.

outrageously adv, e.g. The book was proclaimed to be outrageously indecent and banned in most countries.

outrage n 1) extreme violence; violent transgression of law or decency, as an act of outrage; never to be safe from outrage 2) {with [16] an ind. art.) a very wrong or cruel act of physical injury to another person's property, or to the person himself, or to his feelings, e.g. The dropping of bombs on women and children is an outrage against humanity. Coll. Just look at the hat she's wearing; it's an outrage!

Outrage vt treat violently; injure severely; treat with scorn, as to outrage public opinion (do smth. that everybody thinks wrong)
6. Neat a 1) clean and in good order, as a neat room, to keep smth. as neat as a pin 2) well-formed; pleasing in shape and appearance, e.g. She has a very neat figure. Your handwriting is very neat. 3) in good taste; simply and pleasantly arranged, as a neat dress 4) done with skill and care, as a neat piece of work 5) (of style, language, remarks) short and clever; witty and pointed, e.g. She gave a very neat answer. Detective stories are loved for their tidy problems and neat solution. 6) (use of wine and spirits) without water, as to drink brandy neat; neat juice (syrup)

^ Neatly adv, e.g. I realized that I had been very neatly put in my place.

Word Discrimination: neat, tidy, trim, spick-and-span.

Neat suggests cleanliness, simplicity and a certain orderliness or precision which sometimes becomes the chief implication of the word. In neat person the adjective describes the personal appearance: dress, hairdo. The general effect is that of cleanliness, well-fitting clothes. In tidy person the adjective refers to the person in the habit of putting things in their proper places and of keeping eyerything around him clean and orderly. Tidy implies habitual neatness, e.g. We liked his tidy habits. He always kept his room tidy (i.e. all the things in the room were in their proper places). Cf. neat room where neat gives the suggestion of cleanliness and pleasing effect. Trim adds the implication of smartness, often of smugness or compactness, as a trim ship (cabin, maid-servant, etc.) Also: trim clothes, trim figure, etc. Spick-and-span stresses the brightness and freshness of that which is new (or made to look like new), as spick-and-span white shoes, e.g. Her mother keeps her spick-and-span every moment of the day. The kitchen was spick-and-span. Ant. disorderly, confused, messy, slovenly.
7. Witticism n a witty remark: a jest, e.g. I was feverishly searching my mind for some witticism that might make her smile.

Wit n 1) (sing, or pi.) intelligence; understanding; mental power; quickness of mind, e.g. He hadn't the wit(s) (hadn't wit enough) to know what to do in the emergency. He has quick (slow) wits, out of one's wits mad; greatly upset or frightened, e.g. He was out of his wits [17] when he saw the house was on fire, at one's wits' end not knowing what to do or say; quite at a loss, e.g. He gave her a questioning glance but she was at her wits' end too. to collect one's wits gather together, recover control of one's thoughts, e.g. He tried to collect his wits before saying anything, to live by one's wits live by clever but haphazard methods, not always honest, e.g. But there were many who declassed by hard social conditions, never worked and lived by
their wits, to have (keep) one's wits about one be quick to see what is happening, alert and ready to act, e.g. The kid has his wits about him, he will get out of the mess all right. 2) clever and humorous expression of ideas; liveliness of spirit, e.g. Our teacher (or teacher's conversation) is full of wit.

^ Witty a clever and amusing; full of, or marked by wit, as a witty person (remark). Ant. dull, stupid.
8. Impudent a not showing respect; being rude on purpose and in a shameless way, e.g. What an impudent rascal he is! What an impudent accusation!

Impudently adv, e.g. When charged with the crime of the broken window the boy grinned impudently and said nothing.

Impudence n being impudent, impudent words and actions, e.g. None of your impudence! (i.e. Don't be so impudent!) He had the impudence to say that I was telling lies! His impudence knew no bounds.
9. Benefit n 1) help; advantage; profit; improvement, e.g. Did you get much benefit from your holiday? (Did it do you good?) The book wasn't of much benefit to me (didn't help me very much). The money was used for the benefit of (in order to help) the population after
the disaster. What benefit would it be to the nation? benefit performance (concert, etc.) a performance (at a theatre), a concert, etc., when the money is for the benefit of some special cause 2) (often in the pi.) an act of kindness; a favour; an advantage, e.g. He should
have been grateful for the benefits he received from his relatives.

Benefit vt/i help or be helped; give or receive benefit, e.g. The sea air will benefit you. He benefited by the medicine the doctor gave him.
Word Combinations and Phrases

to carry well (voice, music, etc.) (to have) a feeling for atmosphere

to be hard on smb. (coll.) to roar with laughter [18]

to make a fool of oneself (coll.) to pass entirely without incident

to consult smth. (a map, a dictio- (bookish)

nary, the time-table, etc.) to put smb. off (coll.)

to take (official) notice of smth.

(or smb.)

EXERCISES
1. a) Listen to the recording of Text One and mark the stresses and tunes,
b) Repeat the text in the intervals after the model.

^ 2. Consult a dictionary, transcribe the following words and practise their pro-
nunciation:

vaultlike, dais, atmosphere, powder-magazine, disorderliness, pleasant-faced, deliberately, uncanny, outrageously, facetiousness, armoury, assembly, subtly, clever-looking, impudently, penalty, congratulate, fulsomely, ordeal, prefect, execution
^ 3. Read the following word combinations paying attention to assimilation and
the linking "r":

on the dais, watched the school straggling to their places; but there was an atmosphere of subdued expectancy; the boys stared about them; at the far end of the hall; consulted the map; by counting down the rows discovered the boy's name; when the laughter subsided; in the front row but one; again the assembly laughed; who dropped the desk-lid; but that you put them off; and they tell me; in their armchairs
4. Read the passage beginning with "Speed was very nervous..." till "...he was eager for the storm to break"; concentrate your attention on weak forms and the rhythm.
5. While reading the following dialogues mind the intonation of the stimuli and responses and convey proper attitudes according to the author's directions given in the text:
A. When the laughter subsided, a lean, rather clever-looking boy rose up in the front row but one and said, impudently: "Please sir, I'm Worsley. I didn't do anything."

Speed replied promptly: "Oh, didn't you? Well, you've got a hundred lines, anyway."

"What for, sir" — in hot indignation.

"For sitting in your wrong desk." [19]

В. "And what's your name?" asked Speed.

"Naylor, sir."

"Very well, Naylor, you and Worsley can share the hundred lines between you." He added smiling: "I've no doubt you're neither of you worse than anybody else but you must pay the penalty of being pioneers.''

They went away laughing.
^ 6. Read the text and consider its following aspects.
a) Comment upon the choice of words in:
watched the school straggling to their places (why not "walking, coming"?); the boys stared about them (why not "looked"?); there was some tittering (why not "laughter" ?); the whole assembly roared with laughter (why not "the whole school laughed"?)
b) Explain:
there was a sense in which he was eager for the storm to break: I don't want to be hard on anybody; a class had ragged a certain Master; you put them off
c) What stylistic devices are used in the sentences beginning with "Speed felt rather as if..." and "Instinct in him..."? Explain their purpose and effect. Comment on the fitness of the comparisons.
d) Indicate the use of formal (learned) words and colloguialisms. Explain their purpose.
e) What words and phrases give atmosphere to the description? Select descriptive details that contribute to the realism of the fragment.
f) Point out the climax of the episode. Give reasons for your choice.
g) Do you think that there are sentences where the author is over-emphatic? Select them and criticize or justify the emphasis.
^ 7. Copy out from Text One the sentences containing the word combinations and phrases and translate them into Russian.
8. Paraphrase the following sentences using the word combinations and phrases:
1. Our life in the house followed a quiet pattern. 2. The scheme was soon put into operation. 3. She turned sharply to meet his glance. Suddenly she felt a pang of pity. No, she could not be cruel to him. 4. It was hard to tell where you stood with Eddy and I was careful not to become a laughing-stock for his pals. 5. He was arrested by her face immediately, so gentle it looked in the crowd. 6. He looked up in the telephone-directory but there was no telephone listed under his name. 7. When the white figure emerged at the window, there was a spooky silence, but in a moment we recognized George and burst into laughter. 8. He tried to get rid of me
with more promises but I wouldn't surrender. 9. She evidently felt ill at ease and spoke very quietly but everything she said could be heard distinctly. 10. Nothing happened in the morning, but when the good news came, the next hour was a succession of hand-shakes
and laughing comments.
9. Compose short situations in dialogue form for each of the given word combinations and phrases. Mind their stylistic peculiarities. Use proper intonation means in the stimuli and responses.
^ 10. Translate the following sentences into English using the word combinations
and phrases:

1. Обстоятельства помешали им привести свой план в исполнение. 2. Учитель говорил тихим голосом, но его было хорошо слышно. 3. Сказав это, он понял, что поставил себя в глупое положение. 4. Услышав эту шутку, все разразились громким смехом. 5. Какое расстояние отсюда до города? — Я не знаю. Посмотри по карте. 6. После этого весь судебный процесс проходил без единого происшествия. 7. Спид знал, что молодой учитель должен с самого начала утвердить свой авторитет (to gain a firm standing), и поэтому он сразу поставил мальчиков на место, когда они стали плохо вести себя. 8. Она отделалась от него шуткой (with a jest). 9. Я не хочу, чтобы ты поставил себя в глупое положение. 10. Герберт не обращал внимания на то, что она говорила. 11. Все знали, что Фэти пользуется шпаргалками, но никто не обращал на это внимания. 12. Не будь с ней так сурова, она не виновата. 13. Узнав о случившемся, отец сурово обошелся с сыном.

^ 11. Answer the following questions:
1. What was Speed conscious of when he took his seat on the dais? How did the boys behave? 2. What was the first breach of discipline during the prep? 3. Do you think Speed's reaction to the breach of discipline was correct? 4. Was he conscious of the risks he ran? What
does the author call his act? 5. What did Speed remember when the assembly was roaring with laughter? 6. In what way did Speed put off the mischief-makers? Do you think the way he dealt with the situation was correct? 7. What did Speed learn in the evening? 8. What would
you do if you were in similar conditions? Would you do the same?
^ 12. Ask each other questions covering the text. Mind the intonation of interrogative sentences to convey proper attitudes.
Models:

a) Do you think the boys liked Speed's answer? Who do you think warned him? etc.

b) When was it that tittering began? How was it that Speed won the respect of the boys?
^ 13. Study the vocabulary notes and translate the examples into Russian.
14. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the words and word combinations in italics:
A. 1. Subduing a wilful child is not an easy task. 2. Both Hope and the Professor were rather subdued, not guite their customary selves. 3. In the large dimness of the hall they sat together, for three hours very conscious of each other. 4. I've never suspected you to be so dress-conscious. 5. Largs gave hem one of his infreguent but disarming grins, which suddenly turned him into an over-size small boy out for a lark. 6. Mamma is smiling with all her might. In fact Mr. Newcome says ... "that woman grins like a Cheshire cat." 7.1 paid attention to the orderly placing of furniture in the room. 8. Mrs. Ernest Weldon wandered about the orderly living-room, giving it some of those little feminine touches. 9. He was a man of unusually conscientious, industrious and orderly mind, with little imagination. 10. He thought of it as he contemplated the small orderliness of the cabin against the window background of such frantic natural scenery. 11. He came mincing forward, almost swooned at the sight of so many staring faces but bravely recovered himself, and then began hissing at them like an outraged serpent. 12. And as Lady Foxfield stepped back a pace and appeared to swell up with outraged dignity, Bessy grabbed half a dozen balls of wool and hurled them straight at her. 13. The pictures on the walls of the room were an outrageous challenge to good taste. 14. The fascist invaders committed numerous
outrages on the territories they occupied.
B. 1. The words may have been the usual conventional stuff, but they neatly fitted a fine marching tune. 2. He gave the egg a neat rap on the table and peeled it scrupulously. 3. He was neat in his dress; he went to work in quiet grey trousers, a black coat and a bowler hat. 4. Her coat was pretty old, but neat as a new pin. 5. But he would have worried more about all this if he had not been so busy worrying about how to keep his senses, his wits and his manhood intact on the back of that infernal motorcycle. 6. "I have here the figures of the annual expenditure of the company in wages." — "Keep 'em. Don't want figures. No use addling our wits with a lot of nonsensical figures." 7. Throughout all this my lord was like a cold, kind spectator with his wits about him. 8. Nick possessed that ability sometimes found in an
unemployed slumdweller to live precariously by his wits. 9. During the whole of this time Scrooge had acted like a man our of his wits. 10. He was a man with little wit in conversation. 11. There was a celebratory dinner at which Speed accompanied songs and made a nervously witty speech and was vociferously applauded. 12. As Candover's conduct was especially noisy and impudent and calculated to lead to a serious breach of the peace, he was taken into custody by Sergeant Pegswood. 13. He spoke impudently and it steered the conversation around to the dangerous point. 14. "He will be found," said the Professor calmly. "And when you find him, perhaps you had better keep him." — "If you mean what I think you mean," replied Daisy tartly, "then you've got a sauce." — "A sauce?" The Professor looked almost startled. "How can I have a sauce?" — "I mean — a nerve, a cheek —" — "Impudence, eh? A-curious idiom. I must remember it for America." — "You needn't, 'cos the slang's all different there." 15. "Fact is, an Afghan or an Afridi or somebody ran off with one of our buses,* and there was the very devil to pay afterwards, as you can imagine. Most impudent thing I ever heard of." 16. I didn't think it would benefit you if you argued with Williston. 17. Who benefits by the death of Simpson? 18. Anthony lit a cigarette and braced himself for the ordeal. He wondered what benefit this affair would be to everybody. 19. The traditional suspect of a detective story is a
person who benefits by the death of the murdered man.
^ 15. Translate the following sentences to revise the different meanings of the
words "order" and "disorder".

a) Translate into Russian:
1. He is under orders to start for India next week. 2. The general drew up his troops in order. 3. You may get these books by money order. 4. He has always been distinguished by intellectual ability of high order. 5. The disorders in the city detained him long. 6. I've come
to see you in order that you may be sure everything is all right. 7. He went on throwing open doors, and peeping in. Everything was in apple-pie order, ready for immediate occupation. 8. The hotel-maid called for orders.
b) Translate into English:
1. Председатель призвал его к порядку. 2. Он дал указание немедленно приступить к работе. 3. По приказу судьи его вывели из зала. 4. Мы разложили книги по степени их важности. 5. Все эти товары в полном порядке. 6. Он остановился в дверях, чтобы рассмотреть всех получше. 7. Машина испортилась, но они думали, что шофер нарочно тянет время (to play for time). 8. После налета грабителей комната была в большом беспорядке. 9. Вражеские войска в беспорядке отступали. 10. Ее одежда и волосы были в беспорядке.
^ 16. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary
and the patterns of the lesson:

1. Спид отчетливо сознавал, что такой шаг опасен, но решил рискнуть. 2. Ему удалось установить тишину, но в классе чувствовалось сдержанное волнение. 3. Он отлично справляется со своей работой. Это очень добросовестный, опытный рабочий. 4. Увидев, что все в полном порядке, он выразил улыбкой свое одобрение. 5. Несмотря на шум во время перемены, мы услышали их приглушенные голоса за стеной. 6. Она так устала, что даже не почувствовала боли. 7. Что ты там ухмыляешься? Иди и помоги нам. 8. Я не могу простить ему его наглости. Я хочу, чтобы он немедленно уехал. 9. Не было сомнения, что за его широкой улыбкой скрывалась обида. Я поняла, что его задели ее слова. 10. Речь Спида на прощальном обеде так и искрилась остроумными шутками. 11. Его откровенная усмешка вызвала у всех возмущение. 12. Когда он собрался с мыслями, он понял, что дети хотели подшутить над ним. 13. Это был спокойный, методичный человек, лет 50. 14. Она совершенно растерялась и не знала, как поступить в этой сложной обстановке. 15. Урок был хорошо организован, и учительнице удалось овладеть вниманием учеников с самого начала. 16. Его непринужденность и остроумие создавали ту приятную обстановку взаимопонимания, которая необходима в любом обществе. 17. Он был арестован за нарушение общественного порядка. 18. Как он остроумен! Обратите внимание на его точные ответы и быструю реакцию. 19. Его наглость и возмутительное поведение вызвали всеобщий гнев. 20. На ней было скромное, но изящное платье, и комната ее была
тоже аккуратной и говорила о вкусе хозяйки. 21. После Нюрнбергского процесса были преданы гласности многие преступления против человечества, совершенные нацистами. 22. Все это сделано ради вас. 23. А что, если его остроумие не поможет, и атмосфера скуки так и сохранится до конца вечера? 24. Статья не принесла никому никакой пользы. 25. Отделавшись от мальчиков шуткой, он прошел через испытание успешно, хотя отчетливо сознавал, что это был не лучший выход из положения. 26. Все деньги от благотворительного концерта были отданы в помощь пострадавшим от землетрясения. 27. Помогло ли вам новое лекарство? 28. Письмо было написано аккуратным женским почерком, и мы сразу догадались, кто его написал.
^ 17. Write a one-page precis of Text One.
18. Give a summary of Text One.
19. Relate the incident that took place during the preps at Millstead from the point of view of:

a) Speed who tells it to his colleague Clanwell in a facetious way; convey proper attitudes by using adequate intonation means;

b) one of the boys who took part in the ragging of the new teacher; the boy is excited and somewhat frightened; use proper intonation means;

c) Clanwell whose attitude to the whole incident is disapproving.
^ 20. Write an entry in Speed's imaginary diary describing the episode.
21. Reread Text One to answer the following questions on its style.
a) How is the atmosphere of uneasiness and suspense created and maintained?
Comment on, and illustrate, the methods used for heightening the emotion. What
is the author's aim?

b) What are the outstanding qualities of the language of the extract?

c) Does the extract appeal to you? If so, why? If not, give well-founded criticism.


UNIT TWO
TEXT TWO


^ THE ESCAPE

By Somerset Maugham

W. Somerset Maugham, a famous English writer, was born in 1874 in Paris. He received his medical degree, but he never practiced medicine; the ambition to write dominated his entire life. In 1897 "Liza of Lambeth", Maugham's first novel, ap­peared. It had no success. For the next ten years Maugham wrote and starved. He turned out a steady stream of plays and novels none of which excited much atten­tion. His luck changed in 1907. In that year "Lady Frederic", a comedy of manners, was produced in London. It had a bright, fashionable success. By and by, Maugham became internationally celebrated; his plays were performed all over the world. Now independent and well able to enjoy life Maugham began to travel. He came to know Europe thoroughly and spent long periods in the United States, the South Seas and China. His favorite country was Spain ("The Land of the Blessed Virgin" and "Don Fernando"). In 1915 Maugham published a novel that had been in preparation for many years. Called "Of Human Bondage" it was received by critics with great re­spect. Over the years, it has become a modern classic. Many popular successes fol­lowed its publication: "Ashenden", "Moon and Sixpence", "Cakes and Ale", etc. He died in 1965.
I have always been convinced that if a woman once made up her mind to marry a man nothing but instant flight could save him. Not always that; for once a friend of mine., seeing the inevitable loom menacingly before him, took ship from a certain port (with a tooth­brush for all his luggage, so conscious was he of his danger and the necessity for immediate action) and spent a year travelling round the world; but when, thinking himself safe (women are fickle, he said, and in twelve months she will have forgotten all about me), he landed at the selfsame port the first person he saw gaily waving to him from the quay was the little lady from whom he had fled4. I have only once known a man who in such circumstances managed to extricate him­self. His name was Roger Charing. He was no longer young when he fell in love with Ruth Barlow and he had had sufficient experience to make him careful; but Ruth Barlow had я gift (or should I call it a, quality?) that renders most men defenseless, and it was this that dispossessed Roger of his common sense, his prudence and his worldy wisdom. He went down like a row of ninebins.1 This was the gift of pathos. Mrs. Barlow, for she was twice a widow, had splendid dark eyes and they were the most moving I ever saw; they seemed to be ever on the point of filling with tears; they suggested that the world was too much for her, and you felt that, poor dear, her sufferings had been more than anyone should be asked to bear. If, like Roger Char­ing, you were a strong, hefty fellow with plenty of money, it was al­most inevitable that you should say to yourself: I must stand between the hazards of life and this helpless little thing, or, how wonderful it would be to take the sadness out of those big and lovely eyes! I gath­ered from Roger that everyone had treated Mrs. Barlow very badly. She was apparently one of those unfortunate persons with whom nothing by any chance goes right. If she married a husband he beat her; if she employed a broker he cheated her; if she engaged a cook she drank. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die.

When Roger told me that he had at last persuaded her to marry him, I wished him joy.

"I hope you'll be good friends," he said. "She's a little afraid of you, you know; she thinks you're callous.

"Upon my word I don't know why she should think that."

"You do like her, don't you?"

"Very much."

"She's had a rotten time, poor dear. 1 feel so dreadfully sorry for her."

"Yes," I said.

I couldn't say less. I knew she was stupid and I thought she was scheming. My own belief was that she was as hard as nails.

The first time I met her we had played bridge together and when she was my partner she twice trumped my best card. I behaved like an angel, but I confess that I thought if the tears were going to well up into anybody1 s eyes they should have been mine rather than hers. And when, having by the end of the evening lost a good deal of mon­ey to me, she said she would send me a cheque and never did, I could not but think that I and not she should have worn a pathetic .expres­sion when next we met.

Roger introduced her to his friends. He gave her lovely jewels. He took her here, there, and everywhere. Their marriage was announced for the immediate future. Roger was very happy. He was committing a good action and at the same time doing something he had very much a mind to. It is an uncommon situation and it is not surprising if he was a trifle more pleased with himself than was altogether becoming.

Then, on a sudden, he fell out of love. I do not know why. It could hardly have been that he grew tired of her conversation, for she had never had any conversation. Perhaps it was merely that this pathetic [42] look of hers ceased to wring his heart-strings. His eyes were opened and he was once more the shrewd man of the world he had been. He became acutely conscious that Ruth Barlow had made up her mind to marry him and he swore a solemn oath that nothing would induce him to marry Ruth Barlow. But he was in a quandary. Now that he was in possession of his senses he saw with clearness the sort of woman he had to deal with and he was aware that, ii he asked her to release him, she would (in her appealing way) assess her wound­ed feelings at an immoderately high figure.3 Besides, it is always awkward for a man to jilt a woman. People are apt to think he has behaved badly.

Roger kept his own counsel. He gave neither byword nor gesture an indication that his feelings towards Ruth Barlow had changed. He remained attentive to all her wishes; he took her to dine at restaurants, they went to the play together, he sent her flowers; he was sympathet­ic and charming. They had made up their minds that they would be married as soon as they found a house that suited them, for he lived in chambers and she in furnished rooms; and they set about looking at desirable residences. The agents sent Roger orders to view and he took Ruth to see a number of houses. It was very hard to find anything that was guite satisfactory. Roger applied to more agents. They visited house after house. They went over them thoroughly, examining them from the cellars in the basement to the attics under the roof. Sometimes they were too large and sometimes they were too small, sometimes they were too far from the centre of things and sometimes they were too close; sometimes they were too expensive and sometimes they wanted too many repairs; sometimes they were too stuffy and some­times they were too airy; sometimes they were too dark and sometimes they were too bleak. Roger always found a fault that made the house unsuitable. Of course he was hard to please; he could not bear to ask his dear Ruth to live in any but the perfect house, and the perfect house wanted finding. House-hunting is a tiring and a tiresome business and presently Ruth began to grow peevish. Roger begged her to have pa­tience; somewhere, surely, existed the very house they were looking for, and it only needed a little perseverance and they would find it. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected innumerable kitchens. Ruth was exhausted and more than once lost her temper.

"If you don't find a house soon," she said, "I shall have to recon­sider my position. Why, if you go on like this we shan't be married for years."

"Don't say that," he answered. "I beseech you to have patience. I've just received some entirely new lists from agents I've only just heard of. There must be at least sixty houses on them."

They set out on the chase again. They looked at more houses and more houses. For two years they looked at houses. Ruth grew silent and scornful: her pathetic, beautiful eyes acquired an expression that was almost sullen. There are limits to human endurance. Mrs. Bar­low had the patience of an angel, but at last she revolted.

"Do you want to marry me or do you not?" she asked him.

There was an unaccustomed hardness in her voice, but it did not affect the gentleness of his reply.

"Of course I do. We'll be married the very moment we find a house. By the way I've just heard of something that might suit us."

"I don't feel well enough to look at any more houses just yet."

"Poor dear, I was afraid you were looking rather tired."

Ruth Barlow took to her bed. She would not see Roger and he had to content himself with calling at her lodgings to enquire and send­ing her flowers. He was as ever assiduous and gallant. Every day he wrote and told her that he had heard of another house for them to look at. A week passed and then he received the following letter:

^ Roger,

I do not think you really love me. I have found someone who is anxious to take care of me and I am going to be married to him today.

Ruth.

He sent back his reply by special messenger:

Ruth,

Your news shatters me. 1 shall never get over the blow, but of course your happiness must be my first consideration. 1 send you herewith seven orders to view; they arrived by this morning's post and lam quite sure you will find among them a house that will exactly suit you.

Roger.
Commentary

^ 1. He went down like a row of ninepins, (fig.) here: He was defeat­ed at once and surrendered without resisting.

2. She never had a little lamb but it was sure to die: There was never anything dear to her that she wouldn't lose. "A little lamb" is [44] somebody that one loves dearly; an allusion to the well-known nurs­ery rhyme:

Mary had a little lamb.

Its fleece was white as snow,

And everywhere that Mary went,

The lamb was sure to go.

3. She would assess her wounded feelings at an immoderately high figure: she would make him pay much for jilting her.
^ ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY
Vocabulary Notes
1. hazard n a chance, risk or danger, as a life full of hazards; the hazards of one's life; at all hazards at all risks; whatever dangers there may be, e.g. You should do it at all hazards, to take hazards to run risks, e.g. He was aware that he was taking hazards but there was no way back.

Hazard vt 1) trust to chance; take the risk of, e.g. Rock-climbers sometimes hazard their lives. 2) offer or venture, as to hazard a re­mark (guess), battle

Hazardous a risky; dependent on chance, as a hazardous climb. Ant. safe, secure, sheltered.
2. persuade vt I) convince; lead (a person) by argument to believe something or to think in a certain way, as to persuade a person of the truth of a report, e.g. I persuaded myself that all was well. 2) cause (a person) by argument to do something, e.g. His friends could nev­er persuade him to go to a hockey-match: he said the absurdity of the game made him feel too sorry for the players.

Persuaded p.p. (predic. only) certain; convinced, e.g. I am almost persuaded of his honesty.

Persuasion n, e.g. No persuasion on my part could make him do it. He agreed to stay in bed only after much persuasion.

Word Discrimination: to convince, to persuade.

Both are rendered in Russian as «убеждать». То persuade may be translated into Russian by «склонять, уговаривать»; this shade of meaning does not apply to convince, which win help to distinguish the difference between the two words.

To convince a person means to satisfy his understanding as to the truth of something by proof, evidence or arguments, e.g. Nothing will convince me that lies and falsehoods can be justified. Adjectives: convinced, convincing, as convinced bachelor; convincing proof, evidence, statement, reason.

To persuade a person is to influence him in some way, either by argument, proof or otherwise. Conviction or the process of convinc­ing leads to belief. Persuasion leads to action. A stubborn person may be convinced of the necessity of doing something, but nothing may be able to persuade him to do it, e.g. You have persuaded me that I must apologize.

To convince a person is to prove the truth to him. To persuade a person is more than that: it implies not only convincing, but also influencing a person to act, to do something on the basis of his conviction.

Persuade may refer to the process itself of arguing with a person whereas convince is never used in this sense, but implies rather the final result of argument. E.g. We were persuading him to give up that dangerous plan, but failed to convince him.
3. Scheme v – plan or form a plan, esp. a secret or dishonest one, e.g. They schemed to overthrow their rivals.

Scheme n 1) a plan, e.g. The designer acquainted us with the scheme. 2) an arrangement in which each part fits the other parts perfectly, as a colour (furnishing) scheme (i.e. an arrangement cho­sen so that the effect is pleasing) 3) a secret, esp. dishonest, plan, e.g. Their scheme was exposed and the criminals were soon put on trial. 4) a carefully arranged statement of a plan, e.g. In the first les­son the teacher gave the students a scheme of work for the year.
4. Commit v – 1} (usu.) to do a bad or foolish act, as to commit a crime, suicide, an error, e.g. He committed a grave error and he was conscious of it. I wonder what made him commit suicide. 2) handover or give up for safe keeping; entrust; place, as to commit smth. to paper (to writing); to write it down, e.g. If you are very ill, you have to commit yourself to doctors and nurses. The prisoner was commit­ted for trial (i.e. sent before the judges to be tried). The body was committed to the flames, (i.e. burnt). 3) to speak or act in such a way that one will be compelled to do smth, e.g. He has committed him­self to support his brother's children (i.e. said or done smth that makes it necessary for him to support them).
5. Acute a 1) (of the mind and the senses) sharp; quick, e.g. Dogs have an acute sense of smell. A man with an .acute mind soon knows [46] whether a book is valuable or not. 2) severe, sharp and sudden, e.g. A bad tooth may cause acute pain. 3) very strong; deeply felt, e.q. His son's success in the examinations gave him acute pleasure. 4) (of an illness) serious and causing great suffering; coming sharp­ly to a crisis. (Cf. chronic), as acute gastritis 5) sharp, pointed, as an acute angle (one that is less than a right angle)

Acutely adv – e.g. He was acutely conscious of her presence, and it made him unusually silent.
6. Appeal v –

1) ask someone to decide a question; (esp.) ask some­one to say that one is right; ask earnestly for something, e.g. The prisoner appealed to the judge for mercy. She appealed to me to protect her. 2) Move the feelings; interest; attract, e.g. Do these paint­ings appeal to you? (Do you like them?) Bright colours appeal to small children. The sea voyage does not appeal to me.

Appealing pl. p., a imploring, e.g. The girl said it with such an appealing smile that Mr. Fowler, to his own surprise, granted the request, though but half a minute before he meant to refuse it.

Appeal n 1) an earnest call for help, as to collect signatures to an appeal, e.g. An appeal is being made for help for those who lost their homes in the earthquake. 2) a call to smth. or smb. to make a decision, e.g. So powerful seemed his appeal that the people were deeply moved. 3) interest or attraction, e.g. That sort of music hasn't much appeal for me. (I'm not much attracted by it.) The novel has general appeal, to make an appeal to smb. to attract smb., e.g. This type of romantic hero is sure to make an appeal to feminine hearts.

Word Discrimination: to address, to apply to, to appeal to, to turn to, to consult, to go to.

The Russian word «обращаться» has a number of equivalents in English:

To address, which is a formal word, means to speak to smb., to make a speech, as to address a person, audience, meeting. It is not followed by a preposition, but in the expression "to address oneself to smb." the preposition "to" is used. E.g. It is to you, sir, I address myself. Also: That remark was addressed to his neighbour.

^ To apply (to smb. for smth.) is more limited in use than to address and is even more formal. We say: to apply to an authority, to apply for work, information, permission, a certificate, etc. E.g. Carrie de­cided to apply to the foreman of the shoe factory for work.

^ To appeal (to smb. for smth.) to ask earnestly for smth. (usu. for help or moral support), to appeal to someone's feelings. [47]

To turn (to smb. for smth.) to go to someone for help (less formal and less emotional), e.g. The child turned to its mother for help.

To consult to go for advice or information, as to consult a lawyer, a doctor, a map, a dictionary. E.g. Nobody ever thought of consult­ing him. I must consult the doctor.

To see and to go to may be used in the meaning of "to consult" (coll.), as to see a doctor, a lawyer.
^ 7. Endurance n ability to endure, e.g. He showed remarkable pow­ers of endurance. There are limits to human endurance.

endure verb bear bravely; remain firm or unmoved; suffer without complaining, as to endure suffering (pain, torture, etc.), e.g. If help does not come, they will endure to the end, 2) suffer; bear; put up with (esp. in the negative with 'can, could, be able1), e.g. I can't endure that man. 3) last; continue in existence, as as long as life endures.

enduring pr. p., a, as an enduring peace (i.e. one that will last a long time)
8. Content v satisfy, e.g. There were no roses at the florist's, and we had to content ourselves with big, red carnations. There is no contenting some people (i.e. it's impossible to satisfy them).

contented a satisfied, as a contented look (smile, laugh, etc.)

content a (predic. only) 1) satisfied with what one has or has had; not wishing for any more, e.g. He is content with very little. 2) will­ing, e.g. I am content to remain where I am now.

content n the condition of being satisfied; feeling easy in one's mind, as to live in peace and content (i.e. peacefully and happily, with no worry or anxiety); to one's heart's content as much as one wants, e.g. And now you may enjoy yourself to your heart's content.
^ Word Combinations and Phrases

To be as hard as nails

To have (very much) a mind to do smth.

To fall out of love

To keep one's own counsel

To be apt to do smth.

To want finding (washing, a good beating, etc.)

To take to one's bed to be one's first consideration
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