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C. Wright Mills: The Sociological Imagination


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Innholdsfortegnelse til Word-dokumentet

Merknad om Layout

Baksidetekst

Contents

1. The Promise

2. Grand Theory

3. Abstracted Empiricism

4. Types of Practicality

5. The Bureaucratic Ethos

6. Philosophies of Science

7. The Human Variety

8. Uses of History

9. On Reason and Freedom

10. On Politics

APPENDIX: On intellectual Craftsmanship

Acknowledgments

Index


Merknad om Layout


Sideoppsett: Hver side er skilt av fire linjeskift. Sidetallene står før den siden de tilhører, og er skilt fra den tilhørende siden med et dobbelt linjeskift. Alle sidetall står i ((dobbel parentes)).

Fotnoter er plassert forløpende nederst på de sidene de tilhører. Fotnotene er skilt fra den overstående brødteksten med markeringen ((fotnote starter)) i dobbel parentes. Fotnoten avsluttes med markeringen ((fotnote slutter)). Markeringene er skilt fra fotnoteteksten med doble linjeskift.

Tabeller: Det finnes en tabell i boka, den er tatt med, men den er temmelig rotete

HHJ 12.11.2004


Baksidetekst


"The critique is hard-hitting, cogent, clearly put, and at times bril­liant.... Wright Mills's views on how social science should he pursued are worth the attention of people in all social disciplines...."

Spectator.


"Professor Mills's vigorous and admirable proclamation...will, let us hope, start a debate on the functions of the sociologist and his denunciation will certainly prompt a good deal of heart-searching."

W. J. H. Sprott, Nation


“This critique of hardening schools of analysis may turn out to he his most important hook to date."

^ Christian Century


"The Sociological Imagination is an important hook.... It deserves to have an influence tar outside the field of formal sociology"

Donat O'Donnell, Manchester Guardian


"Performs an essential task in the service of intellectual lucidity and truth."

^ American Scholar


"Professor Mills could hardly have rendered a hetter service than by writing this hook, which is at once a challenge, a stimulus and incitement to students everywhere to look at sociology with a fresh and clearer vision. What is more, it contains a practical guide. in the appendix on 'Intellectual Craftsmanship,' to ways in which they may profitably go about their task."

^ Times Literary Supplement (London)


The late C. Wright Mills was a leading critic of modern American civilization. Among his hooks are White Collar (GB3). The Power Elite (GB20), Sociology and Pragmatism (GB169), Power, Politics and People (GB205 ), and with H. H. Gerth, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology (GB13).


((i))


^ THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

C. Wright Mills


Oxford University Press, London, Oxford, New York


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BOOKS BY C. WRIGHT MILLS

SOCIOLOGY AND PRAGMATISM: The Higher Learning in America (1966) ( Edited and with an Introduction by Irving Louis Horowitz)


^ POWER, POLITICS AND PEOPLE (1963)

( Edited and with an Introduction by Irving Louis Horowitz )


THE MARXISTS (1962)


IMAGES OF MAN (1960 )

(Edited and with an Introduction )


THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION (1959) THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR THREE (1958) THE POWER ELITE (1956)


CHARACTER AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE (1953) (with H. H. Gerth)


WHITE COLLAR: The American Middle Classes (1951) THE PUERTO RICAN JOURNEY (1950)

(with Clarence Senior and Rose Goldsen )


^ THE NEW MEN OF POWER (1948 )


FROM MAX WEBER: Essays in Sociology (1946) (Edited and Trans. with H. H. Gerth)


Copyright © 1959 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 59-7506 First published by Oxford University Press, New York, 1959

First issued as an Oxford University Press paperback, 1967

printing, last digit: 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41

Printed in the United States of America


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For Harvey and Bette


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((1))


Contents

L The Promise, 3

  1. Grand Theory, 25

  2. Abstracted Empiricism, 50

  3. Types of Practicality, 76

  4. The Bureaucratic Ethos, 100

  5. Philosophies of Science, 119

  6. The Human Variety, 132

  7. Uses of History, 143

  8. On Reason and Freedom, 165

  9. On Politics, 177

Appendix: On Intellectual Craftsmanship, 195 Acknowledgments, 227

Index, 229


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((3))


1. The Promise

NOWADAYS men often feel that their private lives are a series of traps. They sense that within their everyday worlds, they cannot overcome their troubles, and in this feeling, they are often quite correct: What ordinary men are directly aware of and what they try to do are bounded by the private orbits in which they live; their visions and their powers are limited to the close-up scenes of job, family, neighborhood; in other milieux, they move vicari­ously and remain spectators. And the more aware they become, however vaguely, of ambitions and of threats which transcend their immediate locales, the more trapped they seem to feel.

Underlying this sense of being trapped are seemingly imper­sonal changes in the very structure of continent-wide societies. The facts of contemporary history are also facts about the success and the failure of individual men and women. When a society is industrialized, a peasant becomes a worker; a feudal lord is liquidated or becomes a businessman. When classes rise or fall, a man is employed or unemployed; when the rate of investment goes up or down, a man takes new heart or goes broke. When wars happen, an insurance salesman becomes a rocket launcher; a store clerk, a radar man; a wife lives alone; a child grows up without a father. Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both.

Yet men do not usually define the troubles they endure in terms of historical change and institutional contradiction. The well-being they enjoy, they do not usually impute to the big ups and downs of the societies in which they live. Seldom aware of the


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intricate connection between the patterns of their own lives and the course of world history, ordinary men do not usually know what this connection means for the kinds of men they are becom­ing and for the kinds of history-making in which they might take part. They do not possess the quality of mind essential to grasp the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and world. They cannot cope with their personal troubles in such ways as to control the structural transformations that usually lie behind them.

Surely it is no wonder. In what period have so many men been so totally exposed at so fast a pace to such earthquakes of change? That Americans have not known such catastrophic changes as have the men and women of other societies is due to historical facts that are now quickly becoming `merely history.' The history that now affects every man is world history. Within this scene and this period, in the course of a single generation, one sixth of mankind is transformed from all that is feudal and back-ward into all that is modern, advanced, and fearful. Political colonies are freed; new and less visible forms of imperialism in-stalled. Revolutions occur; men feel the intimate grip of new kinds of authority. Totalitarian societies rise, and are smashed to bits—or succeed fabulously. After two centuries of ascendancy, capitalism is shown up as only one way to make society into an industrial apparatus. After two centuries of hope, even formal democracy is restricted to a quite small portion of mankind. Everywhere in the underdeveloped world, ancient ways of life are broken up and vague expectations become urgent demands. Everywhere in the overdeveloped world, the means of authority and of violence become total in scope and bureaucratic in form. Humanity itself now lies before us, the super-nation at either pole concentrating its most co-ordinated and massive efforts upon the preparation of World War Three.

The very shaping of history now outpaces the ability of men to orient themselves in accordance with cherished values. And which values? Even when they do not panic, men often sense that older ways of feeling and thinking have collapsed and that newer be­ginnings are ambiguous to the point of moral stasis. Is it any wonder that ordinary men feel they cannot cope with the larger


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worlds with which they are so suddenly confronted? That they cannot understand the meaning of their epoch for their own lives? That—in defense of selfhood-they become morally insensible, trying to remain altogether private men? Is it any wonder that they come to be possessed by a sense of the trap?


It is not only information that they need—in this Age of Fact, information often dominates their attention and overwhelms their capacities to assimilate it. It is not only the skills of reason that they need—although their struggles to acquire these often exhaust their limited moral energy.

What they need, and what they feel they need, is a quality of mind that will help them to use information and to develop reason in order to achieve lucid summations of what is going on in the world and of what may be happening within themselves. It is this quality, I am going to contend, that journalists and scholars, artists and publics, scientists and editors are coming to expect of what may be called the sociological imagination.


1

The sociological imagination enables its possessor to understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals. It enables him to take into account how individuals, in the welter of their daily experience, often become falsely conscious of their social positions. Within that welter, the framework of modern society is sought, and within that framework the psychologies of a variety of men and women are formulated. By such means the personal uneasiness of individuals is focused upon explicit troubles and the indifference of publics is transformed into involvement with public issues.

The first fruit of this imagination—and the first lesson of the social science that embodies it—is the idea that the individual can understand his own experience and gauge his own fate only by locating himself within his period, that he can know his own chances in life only by becoming aware of those of all individuals in his circumstances. In many ways it is a terrible lesson; in many ways a magnificent one. We do not know the limits of man's


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capacities for supreme effort or willing degradation, for agony or glee, for pleasurable brutality or the sweetness of reason. But in our time we have come to know that the limits of `human nature' are frighteningly broad. We have come to know that every in­dividual lives, from one generation to the next, in some society; that he lives out a biography, and that he lives it out within some historical sequence. By the fact of his living he contributes, how-ever minutely, to the shaping of this society and to the course of its history, even as he is made by society and by its historical push and shove.

The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. That is its task and its promise. To recognize this task and this promise is the mark of the classic social analyst. It is characteristic of Herbert Spencer—turgid, polysyllabic, comprehensive; of E. A. Ross—graceful, muckraking, upright; of Auguste Comte and Emile Durkheim; of the intricate and subtle Karl Mannheim. It is the quality of all that is intellectually excellent in Karl Marx; it is the clue to Thorstein Veblen's brilliant and ironic insight, to Joseph Schumpeter's many-sided constructions of reality; it is the basis of the psychological sweep of W. E. H. Lecky no less than of the profundity and clarity of Max Weber. And it is the signal of what is best in contemporary studies of man and society.

No social study that does not come back to the problems of biog­raphy, of history and of their intersections within a society has completed its intellectual journey. Whatever the specific prob­lems of the classic social analysts, however limited or however broad the features of social reality they have examined, those who have been imaginatively aware of the promise of their work have consistently asked three sorts of questions:

(1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? What are its essential components, and how are they related to one another? How does it differ from other varieties of social order? Within it, what is the meaning of any particular feature for its continuance and for its change?

(2)Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it is changing? What is its place within and its meaning for the development of humanity as a whole?


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How does any particular feature we are examining affect, and how is it affected by, the historical period in which it moves? And this period—what are its essential features? How does it differ from other periods? What are its characteristic ways of history-making?

(3)What varieties of men and women now prevail in this so­ciety and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and re-pressed, made sensitive and blunted? What kinds of `human na-ture' are revealed in the conduct and character we observe in this society in this period? And what is the meaning for `human nature' of each and every feature of the society we are examining?

Whether the point of interest is a great power state or a minor literary mood, a family, a prison, a creed—these are the kinds of questions the best social analysts have asked. They are the intel­lectual pivots of classic studies of man in society—and they are the questions inevitably raised by any mind possessing the socio­logical imagination. For that imagination is the capacity to shift from one perspective to another—from the political to the psycho-logical; from examination of a single family to comparative assess-ment of the national budgets of the world; from the theological school to the military establishment; from considerations of an oil industry to studies of contemporary poetry. It is the capacity to range from the most impersonal and remote transformations to the most intimate features of the human self—and to see the relations between the two. Back of its use there is always the urge to know the social and historical meaning of the individual in the society and in the period in which he has his quality and his being.

That, in brief, is why it is by means of the sociological imagina­tion that men now hope to grasp what is going on in the world, and to understand what is happening in themselves as minute points of the intersections of biography and history within so­ciety. In large part, contemporary man's self-conscious view of himself as at least an outsider, if not a permanent stranger, rests upon an absorbed realization of social relativity and of the trans-formative power of history. The sociological imagination is the most fruitful form of this self-consciousness. By its use men whose


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mentalities have swept only a series of limited orbits often come to feel as if suddenly awakened in a house with which they had only supposed themselves to be familiar. Correctly or incorrectly, they often come to feel that they can now provide themselves with adequate summations, cohesive assessments, comprehensive orientations. Older decisions that once appeared sound now seem to them products of a mind unaccountably dense. Their capacity for astonishment is made lively again. They acquire a new way of thinking, they experience a transvaluation of values: in a word, by their reflection and by their sensibility, they realize the cul­tural meaning of the social sciences.


2

Perhaps the most fruitful distinction with which the sociological imagination works is between `the personal troubles of milieu' and `the public issues of social structure.' This distinction is an essential tool of the sociological imagination and a feature of all classic work in social science.

Troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others; they have to do with his self and with those limited areas of social life of which he is directly and personally aware. Accordingly, the statement and the resolution of troubles properly lie within the individual as a biographical entity and within the scope of his immediate milieu—the social setting that is directly open to his personal experience and to some extent his willful activity. A trouble is a private matter: values cherished by an individual are felt by him to be threatened.

Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local en­vironments of the individual and the range of his inner life. They have to do with the organization of many such milieux into the institutions of an historical society as a whole, with the ways in which various milieux overlap and interpenetrate to form the larger structure of social and historical life. An issue is a public matter: some value cherished by publics is felt to be threatened. Often there is a debate about what that value really is and about what it is that really threatens it. This debate is often without focus if only because it is the very nature of an issue, unlike


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even widespread trouble, that it cannot very well be defined in terms of the immediate and everyday environments of ordinary men. An issue, in fact, often involves a crisis in institutional ar­rangements, and often too it involves what Marxists call 'contra­dictions' or `antagonisms:


In these terms, consider unemployment. When, in a city of 100,000, only one man is unemployed, that is his personal trouble, and for its relief we properly look to the character of the man, his skills, and his immediate opportunities. But when in a nation of 50 million employees, 15 million men are unemployed, that is an issue, and we may not hope to find its solution within the range of opportunities open to any one individual. The very structure of opportunities has collapsed. Both the correct statement of the problem and the range of possible solutions require us to con-sider the economic and political institutions of the society, and not merely the personal situation and character of a scatter of individ­uals.

Consider war. The personal problem of war, when it occurs, may be how to survive it or how to die in it with honor; how to make money out of it; how to climb into the higher safety of the military apparatus; or how to contribute to the war's termi­nation. In short, according to one's values, to find a set of milieux and within it to survive the war or make one's death in it meaningful. But the structural issues of war have to do with its causes; with what types of men it throws up into command; with its effects upon economic and political, family and religious institutions, with the unorganized irresponsibility of a world of nation-states.

Consider marriage. Inside a marriage a man and a woman may experience personal troubles, but when the divorce rate during the first four years of marriage is 250 out of every 1,000 attempts, this is an indication of a structural issue having to do with the institutions of marriage and the family and other institutions that bear upon them.

Or consider the metropolis—the horrible, beautiful, ugly, mag­nificent sprawl of the great city. For many upper-class people, the personal solution to `the problem of the city' is to have an


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apartment with private garage under it in the heart of the city, and forty miles out, a house by Henry Hill, garden by Garrett Eckbo, on a hundred acres of private land. In these two con-trolled environments—with a small staff at each end and a pri­vate helicopter connection—most people could solve many of the problems of personal milieux caused by the facts of the city. But all this, however splendid, does not solve the public issues that the structural fact of the city poses. What should be done with this wonderful monstrosity? Break it all up into scattered units, com­bining residence and work? Refurbish it as it stands? Or, after evacuation, dynamite it and build new cities according to new plans in new places? What should those plans be? And who is to decide and to accomplish whatever choice is made? These are structural issues; to confront them and to solve them requires us to consider political and economic issues that affect innumer­able milieux.

In so far as an economy is so arranged that slumps occur, the problem of unemployment becomes incapable of personal solu­tion. In so far as war is inherent in the nation-state system and in the uneven industrialization of the world, the ordinary indi­vidual in his restricted milieu will be powerless—with or without psychiatric aid—to solve the troubles this system or lack of system imposes upon him. In so far as the family as an institution turns women into darling little slaves and men into their chief providers and unweaned dependents, the problem of a satisfactory mar­riage remains incapable of purely private solution. In so far as the overdeveloped megalopolis and the overdeveloped automo-bile are built-in features of the overdeveloped society, the issues of urban living will not be solved by personal ingenuity and private wealth.

What we experience in various and specific milieux, I have noted, is often caused by structural changes. Accordingly, to un­derstand the changes of many personal milieux we are required to look beyond them. And the number and variety of such struc­tural changes increase as the institutions within which we live become more embracing and more intricately connected with one another. To be aware of the idea of social structure and to


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use it with sensibility is to be capable of tracing such linkages among a great variety of milieux. To be able to do that is to possess the sociological imagination.


3

What are the major issues for publics and the key troubles of private individuals in our time? To formulate issues and troubles, we must ask what values are cherished yet threatened, and what values are cherished and supported, by the characterizing trends of our period. In the case both of threat and of support we must ask what salient contradictions of structure may be involved.

When people cherish some set of values and do not feel any threat to them, they experience well-being. When they cherish values but do feel them to be threatened, they experience a crisis —either as a personal trouble or as a public issue. And if all their values seem involved, they feel the total threat of panic.

But suppose people are neither aware of any cherished values nor experience any threat? That is the experience of indifference, which, if it seems to involve all their values, becomes apathy. Sup-pose, finally, they are unaware of any cherished values, but still are very much aware of a threat? That is the experience of uneasiness, of anxiety, which, if it is total enough, becomes a deadly unspecified malaise.

Ours is a time of uneasiness and indifference—not yet formu­lated in such ways as to permit the work of reason and the play of sensibility. Instead of troubles—defined in terms of values and threats—there is often the misery of vague uneasiness; instead of explicit issues there is often merely the beat feeling that all is somehow not right. Neither the values threatened nor whatever threatens them has been stated; in short, they have not been carried to the point of decision. Much less have they been formu­lated as problems of social science.

In the 'thirties there was little doubt—except among certain deluded business circles that there was an economic issue which was also a pack of personal troubles. In these arguments about `the crisis of capitalism,' the formulations of Marx and the many unacknowledged re-formulations of his work probably set the leading terms of the issue, and some men came to understand


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their personal troubles in these terms. The values threatened were plain to see and cherished by all; the structural contradic­tions that threatened them also seemed plain. Both were widely and deeply experienced. It was a political age.

But the values threatened in the era after World War Two are often neither widely acknowledged as values nor widely felt to be threatened. Much private uneasiness goes unformulated; much public malaise and many decisions of enormous structural relevance never become public issues. For those who accept such inherited values as reason and freedom, it is the uneasiness itself that is the trouble; it is the indifference itself that is the issue. And it is this condition, of uneasiness and indifference, that is the signal feature of our period.

All this is so striking that it is often interpreted by observers as a shift in the very kinds of problems that need now to be formu­lated. We are frequently told that the problems of our decade, or even the crises of our period, have shifted from the external realm of economics and now have to do with the quality of individual life—in fact with the question of whether there is soon going to be anything that can properly be called individual life. Not child labor but comic books, not poverty but mass leisure, are at the center of concern. Many great public issues as well as many pri­vate troubles are described in terms of `the psychiatric'—often, it seems, in a pathetic attempt to avoid the large issues and prob­lems of modern society. Often this statement seems to rest upon a provincial narrowing of interest to the Western societies, or even to the United States—thus ignoring two-thirds of mankind; often, too, it arbitrarily divorces the individual life from the larger institutions within which that life is enacted, and which on occasion bear upon it more grievously than do the intimate environments of childhood.

Problems of leisure, for example, cannot even be stated with-out considering problems of work. Family troubles over comic books cannot be formulated as problems without considering the plight of the contemporary family in its new relations with the newer institutions of the social structure. Neither leisure nor its debilitating uses can be understood as problems without recognition of the extent to which malaise and indifference now


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form the social and personal climate of contemporary American society. In this climate, no problems of `the private life' can be stated, and solved without recognition of the crisis of ambition that is part of the very career of men at work in the incorporated economy.

It is true, as psychoanalysts continually point out, that people do often have `the increasing sense of being moved by obscure forces within themselves which they are unable to define.' But it is not true, as Ernest Jones asserted, that `man's chief enemy and danger is his own unruly nature and the dark forces pent up within him.' On the contrary: `Man's chief danger' today lies in the unruly forces of contemporary society itself, with its alien­ating methods of production, its enveloping techniques of political domination, its international anarchy—in a word, its pervasive transformations of the very `nature' of man and the conditions and aims of his life.


It is now the social scientist's foremost political and intellectual task—for here the two coincide—to make clear the elements of contemporary uneasiness and indifference. It is the central de­mand made upon him by other cultural workmen—by physical scientists and artists, by the intellectual community in general. It is because of this task and these demands, I believe, that the social sciences are becoming the common denominator of our cultural period, and the sociological imagination our most needed quality of mind.


4

In every intellectual age some one style of reflection tends to become a common denominator of cultural life. Nowadays, it is true, many intellectual fads are widely taken up before they are dropped for new ones in the course of a year or two. Such enthu­siasms may add spice to cultural play, but leave little or no intellectual trace. That is not true of such ways of thinking as `Newtonian physics' or `Darwinian biology.' Each of these intel­lectual universes became an influence that reached far beyond any special sphere of idea and imagery. In terms of them, or in terms derived from them, unknown scholars as well as fashion-


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able commentators came to re-focus their observations and re-formulate their concerns.

During the modern era, physical and biological science has been the major common denominator of serious reflection and popular metaphysics in Western societies. `The technique of the laboratory' has been the accepted mode of procedure and the source of intellectual security. That is one meaning of the idea of an intellectual common denominator: men can state their strongest convictions in its terms; other terms and other styles of reflection seem mere vehicles of escape and obscurity.

That a common denominator prevails does not of course mean that no other styles of thought or modes of sensibility exist. But it does mean that more general intellectual interests tend to slide into this area, to be formulated there most sharply, and when so formulated, to be thought somehow to have reached, if not a solution, at least a profitable way of being carried along.

The sociological imagination is becoming, I believe, the major common denominator of our cultural life and its signal feature. This quality of mind is found in the social and psychological sciences, but it goes far beyond these studies as we now know them. Its acquisition by individuals and by the cultural com­munity at large is slow and often fumbling; many social scientists are themselves quite unaware of it. They do not seem to know that the use of this imagination is central to the best work that they might do, that by failing to develop and to use it they are failing to meet the cultural expectations that are coming to be demanded of them and that the classic traditions of their several disciplines make available to them.

Yet in factual and moral concerns, in literary work and in political analysis, the qualities of this imagination are regularly demanded. In a great variety of expressions, they have become central features of intellectual endeavor and cultural sensibility. Leading critics exemplify these qualities as do serious journal­ists—in fact the work of both is often judged in these terms. Popular categories of criticism—high, middle, and low-brow, for example—are now at least as much sociological as aesthetic. Novel­ists—whose serious work embodies the most widespread definitions of human reality—frequently possess this imagination, and do


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much to meet the demand for it. By means of it, orientation to the present as history is sought. As images of `human nature' become more problematic, an increasing need is felt to pay closer yet more imaginative attention to the social routines and catas­trophes which reveal ( and which shape) man's nature in this time of civil unrest and ideological conflict. Although fashion is often revealed by attempts to use it, the sociological imagination is not merely a fashion. It is a quality of mind that seems most dramatically to promise an understanding of the intimate reali­ties of ourselves in connection with larger social realities. It is not merely one quality of mind among the contemporary range of cultural sensibilities—it is the quality whose wider and more adroit use offers the promise that all such sensibilities—and in fact, human reason itself—will come to play a greater role in human affairs.


The cultural meaning of physical science—the major older common denominator—is becoming doubtful. As an intellectual style, physical science is coming to be thought by many as some-how inadequate. The adequacy of scientific styles of thought and feeling, imagination and sensibility, has of course from their beginnings been subject to religious doubt and theological con­troversy, but our scientific grandfathers and fathers beat down such religious doubts. The current doubts are secular, humanistic —and often quite confused. Recent developments in physical science—with its technological climax in the H-bomb and the means of carrying it about the earth—have not been experi­enced as a solution to any problems widely known and deeply pondered by larger intellectual communities and cultural publics. These developments have been correctly seen as a result of highly specialized inquiry, and improperly felt to be wonder-fully mysterious. They have raised more problems—both intel­lectual and moral—than they have solved, and the problems they have raised lie almost entirely in the area of social not physical affairs. The obvious conquest of nature, the overcoming of scarcity, is felt by men of the overdeveloped societies to be virtually complete. And now in these societies, science—the chief

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