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1) The history of England and second part of the 17'th centure, and during the 18'th centure was marked by British colonial, expression and struggle for the leading role in cowers. The writters and philosofists of this age protested against the sovivals of feodalizm in thich they saw the main evil of this time. Man they thought was vertains by nature and wise was duty ignorence to they started a pubic movement for enlighting the people. This movement was called "the enlightment". The enlighters belived in the power of reason and the period was also called "the age of reason". This period saw a remarkable rise in literature. English literature of this period may be characterise by the following features: 1.The rise of the political pamphlets and issue. The novell became the leading genre. 2. The prose style became clever gracefull and polished. 3. The hero of the novell was no longer a prince but a representative of the middle class. 4. Literature became very instructive. The literature of this age may be divided into 3 periods: The 1'st period is caracterised by classisizm in poetry. The greatest follower of the classical style was Alexander Pope. There appeared the first realistic novels written by Defoe and Swift. The 2'nd peiod saw the development of the realistic social novel, represen-tive by Richardson, Fielding and others. The 3'rd period is marked by the appiriense of a new trends: sentimenta-lizm. Typefed by the works of Goldsmith and Stern. This period also saw the rise of the realistic drama (R. Sheridan). Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury,[1] was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.

Hobbes was a champion of absolutism for the sovereign but he also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy.
2) The English author and magistrate Henry Fielding (1707-1754) was one of the great novelists of the 18th cent. His fiction, plays, essays, and legal pamphlets show he was a humane and witty man, with a passion for reform and justice.

The English novel of today was largely created by Henry Fielding and Samuel Richardson. Richardson's works, written in the form of a series of letters, are experiments in psychological analysis. Fielding's novels, in which the author himself tells the story and controls the plot structure, are considered the first accurate portrayal of contemporary manners.

Henry Fielding was born on April 22, 1707. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Fielding's cousin, described him about this time as a high-spirited youth, full of the joy of life, witty and humorous. He was handsome and more than 6 feet in height.

In 1740 Richardson published a novel, Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded, the story of a young servant girl who preserves her virtue against the repeated advances of her master, Squire B - , so impressing him at last that he marries her. The book was an immediate success, being read as a lesson in morality by all young ladies. Fielding could not resist spoofing this, to him, ridiculous tale in an unsigned pamphlet, An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews (1741), in which the virtuous heroine is hilariously exposed as a conniving wench.

Continuing the attack on Richardson, Fielding wrote The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr. Abraham Adams (1742). His purpose in this book, however, was more than parody, for he intended, as he announced in the preface, a "kind of writing which I do not remember to have seen hitherto attempted in our language." In this new kind of writing, which Fielding called a "comic epic poem in prose," he creatively blended two classical traditions: that of the epic, which had been poetic, and that of the drama, but emphasizing the comic rather than the tragic. Another distinction of Joseph Andrews and of the novels to come was the use of everyday reality of character and action as opposed to the fables of the past.
3) Romanticism is a style in fine arts and literature. It emphasizes passion rather than reason, and imagination and inspiration rather than logic. Romanticism favors full expression of the emotions, and free, spontaneous action rather than restraint and order. Romanticism is the sweeping revolt against authority, tradition, and classical order that pervaded western civilization over a period that can be roughly dated from the later eighteenth cent to the mid-nineteenth cent. More generally, Romanticism is that attitude or state of mind that allies itself with the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imagination, and the emotional and the most often takes for its subject matter history, rational striving and the sublime beauties of nature.

Among the characteristic attitudes of Romanticism were the following: a deepened appreciation of the beauties of nature; a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over intellect; a turning in upon the self and a heightened examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities; a preoccupation with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure in general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles; a new view of the artist as a supremely individual creator, whose creative spirit is more important than strict adherence to formal rules and traditional procedures; an emphasis upon imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth; an obsessive interest in folk culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era; and a predilection for the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic.
4) Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th cent in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. An emphasis on personal freedom and liberty is a distinction of Romanticism. Logic, reason and creativity were valued more highly than conformist or cliche topics. Heroes and heroines of Romantic novels often questioned their roles in society and purposes in life. Romantic Poets: William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy B. Shelley, John Keats.

Literature from this period often references nature as a source of inspiration and artistic value. Material and traditional aspects of society were treated as artificial, and appreciation of nature was viewed as a return to the basic elements of human existence.

Romanticists tried to escape from reality. Romantic themes: nature, love, history. Romantic attitudes: sensibility, melancholy, individualism, rebelliousness. The romantics cultivated imaginative freedom.

 Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity. Although realism is not limited to any one cent or group of writers, it is most often associated with the literary movement in 19th-cent France. Realism concerns the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life. Realism has been chiefly concerned with the commonplaces of everyday life among the middle and lower classes, where character is a product of social factors and environment is the integral element in the dramatic complications. Although the concept is also questioned by some critics, it is a useful term to understand the general spirit of the second half of the 19th cent: a reaction to Romanticism, a stress on reason and positivism, and a faith in the power of the artist to show reality.

Industrialization ? new class (workers vs bourgeoisie), railroads, factories, rural population to town, unemployment, overpopulation.

Heathcliff is a catalyst for the sometimes tempestuous but ultimately peaceful relationship between the Lintons and the Earnshaws.
5) In Victorian period appeared a new literary trend called critical realism. English critical realism of the 19th cent flourished in the 40s and in the early 50s. It found its expression in the form of novel. The critical realists, most of whom were novelists, described with much vividness and artistic skill the chief traits of the English society and criticized the capitalist system from a democratic viewpoint.

Charles Dickens(1812-1870). Life: clerk family; a miserable childhood; a clerk, a reporter, a writer; a man of hard work. Features of his works: character sketches and exaggeration; broad humour and penetrating satire; complicated and fascinating plot; the power of exposure. CHARLES DICKENS was perhaps the most popular novelist of the period. He serialized most of his novels, which may explain some of his weak plots. Dickens wrote vividly about London life and the struggles of the poor, but in a good-humoured fashion (with grotesque characters) which was acceptable to readers of all classes. His early works such as the Pickwick Papers (1836) are masterpieces of comedy. Later his works became darker, without losing his genius for caricature: Oliver Twist (1837), David Copperfield (1850), Great Expectations (1861). A Christmas Carol (1843) is the popular story of Mr. Scrooge visited by the four Christmas ghosts.

William Makepeace Thackeray(1811-1863) . Life: born in India; studied in Cambridge; worked as artist and illustrator and writer. William M. Thackeray wrote Vanity Fair (1847), a satire of high classes in English society. Thackeray and Dickens – features:

Just like Dickens, Thackeray is one of the greatest critical realists of the 19th cent Europe. He paints life as he has seen it. With his precise and thorough observation, rich knowledge of social life and of the human heart, the pictures in his novels are accurate and true to life. Thackeray is a satirist. His satire is caustic and his humour subtle. Besides being a realist and satirist, Thackeray is a moralist. His aim is to produce a moral impression in all his novels.
6) The second half of the 19th cent has been called the positivist age. It was an age of faith in all knowledge which would derive from science and scientific objective methods which could solve all human problems. Realism in literature is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity. Although realism is not limited to any one cent or group of writers, it is most often associated with the literary movement in 19th-cent France. Realism concerns the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life. Realism has been chiefly concerned with the commonplaces of everyday life among the middle and lower classes, where character is a product of social factors and environment is the integral element in the dramatic complications. Although the concept is also questioned by some critics, it is a useful term to understand the general spirit of the second half of the 19th cent: a reaction to Romanticism, a stress on reason and positivism, and a faith in the power of the artist to show reality.

George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist and translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era. She is the author of seven novels, including "Adam Bede" (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Middlemarch (1871–72), and Daniel Deronda (1876), most of them set in provincial England and well known for their realism and psychological insight. From Adam Bede to The Mill on the Floss and Silas Marner, Eliot presented the cases of social outsiders and small-town persecution. Felix Holt, the Radical and The Legend of Jubal were overtly political, and political crisis is at the heart of Middlemarch, in which she presents the stories of a number of denizens of a small English town on the eve of the Reform Bill of 1832; the novel is notable for its deep psychological insight and sophisticated character portraits, the roots of this realist philosophy in her review of John Ruskin's Modern Painters in Westminster Review in 1856. Readers in the Victorian era particularly praised her books for their depictions of rural society, for which she drew on her own early experiences, and she shared with Wordsworth the belief that there was much interest and importance in the mundane details of ordinary country lives.

George Meredith, (1828 – 1909) was an English novelist and poet during the Victorian era. In Meredith’s first novel, The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (1859), the natural instincts of man come into conflict with the demands of society. All his later works, which developed in the mainstream of critical realism, were dominated by this conflict. Among his novels are Evan Harrington (1860), The Adventures of Harry Richmond (1870-71; Russian translation, 1870), Beauchamp’s Career (1874-75; Russian translation, 1876), The Egoist (1879; Russian translation, 1894), The Tragic Comedians, and One of Our Conquerors (1891). The driving force in his novels is directed at the exposure of egotism and the hypocrisy of bourgeois England. At the end of his life Meredith devoted himself almost exclusively to poetry.

Samuel Butler (1835 – 1902) was an iconoclastic Victorian author who published a variety of works. Two of his most famous pieces are the Utopian satire Erewhon and the posthumous novel The Way of All Flesh. He is also known for examining Christian orthodoxy, substantive studies of evolutionary thought, studies of Italian art, and works of literary history and criticism. Butler also made prose translations of The Iliad and The Odyssey which remain in use to this day. “Satirist, novelist, artist and critic that he was, he was primarily a philosopher,” and in particular a philosopher who sought the biological foundations for his work: “His biology was a bridge to a philosophy of life which sought a scientific basis for religion and endowed a naturalistically conceived universe with a soul.” Indeed, "philosophical writer" was ultimately the self-description Butler himself chose as most fitting to his work.

7) Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity- наследственность, and environment had force in shaping - формирование human character. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. They believed that one's heredity and social environment determine one's character.

Naturalism also attempts to determine "scientifically"-научно the underlying forces (e.g. the environment or heredity). Naturalistic works showed the dark harshness-жестокость of life, including poverty, racism, sex, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth-грязь

Представители натурализма в Англии Джордж Гиссинг, Джордж Мур (1852-1933), Артур Моррисон (1863-1945)

Neo-Romanticism - British movement of the 1930s to early 1950s in painting, illustration, literature, film and theatre. Neo-Romantic artists focused on a personal, poetic vision of the landscape and on the vulnerable human body, in part as an response to the threat of invasion-вторжение during World WarII.

It is considered in opposition to naturalism. The naturalist in art stresses external observation, whereas the neo-romantic adds feeling and internal-внутренее observation. These artists tend to draw their inspiration from artists of the age of high romanticism, they react in general to the 'ugly' modern world of machines, new cities, and profit. Characteristic themes include longing for perfect love, utopian landscapes, romantic death, and history-in-landscape. Neo-romanticism is often accused by criticsof being too insular-ограниченный. A more persuasive criticism is that neo-romanticism lacks an adequate conception of evil in the modern world.
8) George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2Nov 1950)[was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate-отчетливые pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60 plays. Nearly all his writings address prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy which makes their stark-строгие themes more palatable-благоприятный.

He is the only person to have been awarded both a Nobel Prize for Literature (1925) and an Oscar (1938), for his contributions to literature and for his work on the film Pygmalion.

He has been credited with creating the “theater of ideas,” in which plays explore-изучать such issues as sexism, sexual equality, socioeconomic divisions, the effects of poverty, and philosophical and religious theoriesCommentators note that Shaw's major dramatic works are infused-воодушевлены with his social, economic, and political concerns, particularly his criticism of the inequalities and injustices of late-Victorian capitalism. He is also credited with creating the serious farce, a dramatic genre that inverts –включать melodramatic conventions and utilizes comedy to promote serious views on public policy, social institutions, and morality. In his work, Shaw strove to peel - обножить away the romantic and false layers in order to reveal the realities of middle- and lower-class life. The philosophical, theological, and psychoanalytical theories that permeate-проникать his work are perceived as reflections of Shaw's own concerns.
9) Modernist Literature strengths and weaknesses. In what way did Modernism influence the development of English literature.

Modernist literature is the literary expression of the tendencies of modernism, especially high modernism. Modernistic literature tends to revolve around the themes of individualism, the randomness-произвольность of life, mistrust of institutions (government, religion) and the disbelief in any absolute truths, and to involve a literary structure that departs-уходит from conventionality-консерватизм and realism.

Modernism as a literary movement reached its height in Europe between 1900 and the middle 1920s

Modernism as a literary movement is seen, in large part, as a reaction to the emergence-появление of city life as a central force in society. Modernist writing is more interested in getting the writers ideas, opinions, and thoughts out into the public at as high a volume as possible. The breaking down of social norms, rejection of standard social ideas and traditional thoughts and expectations, objection to religion and anger towards the effects of the world wars, and the rejection of the truth are topics widely seen in this literary era. A rejection of history, social systems, and a sense of loneliness are also common themes. In trying to get their text as high of traffic as possible, modernist literature also creates their text in a stylistic and artistic way, using different fonts, sizes, symbols and colors in the production of their writing.

People began to doubt everything they were supposed to believe in surrounding ideas associated with the government, politics, religion, and everyday societal norms. Trust in higher powers and authority figures began to falter, and the inability to sort through the chaos of these mixed emotions left people disheartened, confused, and angry. This feeling of betrayal and uncertainty towards tradition influenced the writing of British authors between 1914-1919 both stylistically and in form.

J. Joyce
10) The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain characteristics of post–World War II literature and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. Arguably postmodernism peaked in the 60’s-70’s and probably died in the 80’s. The first generation of postmodernists (Jonh Barth, John Fowels, Angela Carther) produced texts that simultaneously questioned and violated the conventions of traditional narrative.

The features are the erosion of the boundaries between High art and Low, development of numerous hybrid genres, the authors write not in one certain genre but they combine and mix them, ”death of author” they now don’t press their opinion on a reader but a story only, themes of World War II its cruelty. Features: irony, playfulness, black humor, metafiction, pastiche are often used for irony. Related to postmodern intertextuality, pastiche means to combine, or "paste" together, multiple elements. In Postmodernist literature this can be an homage to or a parody of past styles. It can be seen as a representation of the chaotic, pluralistic, or information-drenched aspects of postmodern society. Metafiction is essentially writing about writing or "foregrounding the apparatus", making the artificiality of art or the fictionality of fiction apparent to the reader and generally disregards the necessity for "willful suspension of disbelief". It is often employed to undermine the authority of the author, for unexpected narrative shifts, to advance a story in a unique way, for emotional distance, or to comment on the act of storytelling.

John Robert Fowles was an English novelist and essayist whose teasing, multilayered fiction explored the tensions between free will and the constraints of society, even as it played with traditional novelistic conventions and challenged readers to find their own interpretations

The postmodern tactics employed by Fowles in The French Lieutenant’s Woman reveal his personal disdain for Victorian England as well as his espousal of existentialism. Fowles successfully reveals to the reader his belief that people should not adhere to a prescribed path; they should be free to pave their way of their own volition. According to this view there is no metaphysical truth that people’s lives should be spent pursuing, and any truth believed as such is a human construct which externalizes and therefore obscures people’s inner yearnings and enslaves them in a world where they should be essentially free.

Mr. Fowles's originality, versatility and skill were nowhere more evident than in his most celebrated novels, among them "The Collector," "The Magus" and "The French Lieutenant's Woman." In "The French Lieutenant's Woman," for example, he combined the melodrama of a 19th-cent Victorian novel with the sensibility of a 20th-cent postmodern narrator, offering his readers two alternative endings from which to choose and at one point boldly inserting himself into the book as a character who accompanies the hero on a train to London.
11) The colonial period in American history lasts from the beginning of the settlement at Jamestown in 1607 to the ending of the American Revolution in 1783. This time was one of immense hardship for the colonialists, who struggled in an unfamiliar environment with potentially hostile natives. Despite this, the period saw a growing establishment of a separate identity. The latter part of the colonial period, leading up to the American Revolution, was categorized by the Age of Reason or the Enlightenment. The writings of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson all cemented the Age of Reason as a time of a new political philosophy.

Influence of Puritanism on American literature

1) The basis of American literature

2) Widely used technique of symbolism

3) Influencing the style of literature: simple, fresh and direct

Franklin embodied the Enlightenment ideal of humane rationality. Practical yet idealistic hard-working and enormously successful, Franklin recorded his early life in his famous Autobiography.( The work portrays a fascinating picture of life in Philadelphia, as well as Franklin's shrewd observations on the literature, philosophy and religion of America's Colonial and Revolutionary periods. Franklin lists 13 virtues: temperance, silence, order, resolution, frugality, industry, sincerity, justice, moderation, cleanliness, tranqulity, chastity, and humility.

Benjamin Franklin believed that the Americans' need to survive inhibited their literary output. Franklin seemed to think that people needed a stable government and economy before they could make great advances in cultural pursuits such as literature, music, and painting.

By the time of the American Revolution (1775–83), American writers had ventured beyond the Puritan literary style and its religious themes and had developed styles of writing that grew from distinctly American experiences. (The Puritans were a group of Protestants who broke with the Church of England; they believed that church rituals should be simplified and that people should follow strict religious discipline.) The colonial fascination with science, nature, freedom, and innovation came through in the writings of the Revolutionary period. The colonists developed their own way of speaking as well, no longer copying the more formal style of British writers.

THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, which existed from 1750-1800, was the Age of reason that began with the rationalist philosophers and scientists of the seventeenth cent. The emergence of modern science and the scientific method had much to do with this new emphasis on reason. Discoveries made by physical scientists and mathematicians were changing the ways people viewed the universe. Scientific investigation seemed to show that the universe was organized according to certain unchanging laws, and that people could discover those laws through the use of their reason. From this mixtures of outlooks came a very triumphant time in American life, encouraging writers such as Benjamin Franklin.

Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, and the father of the Democratic party, was the author of the Declaration of Independence, whose opening sentences have become commonplaces in the memory of all readers. Another noteworthy writing of Jefferson's was his Inaugural Address of March 4, 1801, with its programme of "equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none; the support of the State governments in all their rights; . . . absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority; . . . the supremacy of the civil over the military authority; economy in the public expense; freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of person under the protection of the habeas corpus, and trial by juries impartially selected."
12) Disagreement about how American literature should grow:

1. American Literature still lacked national feeling; needed books which expressed special character of the nation

2. too young to develop declare its independence from the British literary tradition, still a branch of English culture

3. The call for a national literature was a mistake; good literature should be universal

Novel – the first popular literature of the newly independent United States

-has been considered a dangerous form of literature by the American Puritans who thought novels put immortal ideas into the head of young people

-spoke directly to ordinary Americans

-helped Americans see themselves as a single nation

Irving:

-Plots are based on old German folk tales

-Few of the stories are really original; his writing materials come from nations of Europe

-the first Ameriacn to earn his living through literature

-considered feeling and language as more important elements in his art than story or character

regarded the story simply “as a frame on which I sketch my materials”

Cooper:

-his books contain much thoughtful criticism of American society

-In Europe, Cooper was known as “the American Walter Scott” (who wrote adventure stories filled with historical details)

-considered his works to be completely original

-their characters are “American,” the pioneer, the Indian and the Yankee sailor

The Spy (1821), his first successful novel
13) The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) or American War of Independence, Revolutionary War, or simply American Revolution, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.

Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.

Transcendentalism is a group of ideas in literature and philosophy that developed in the 1830s and 1840s as a protest against the general state of culture and society, and in particular, the state of intellectualism at Harvard University and the doctrine of the Unitarian church taught at Harvard Divinity School. Among the transcendentalists' core beliefs was the belief in an ideal spirituality that "transcends" the physical and empirical and is realized only through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions.The major figures in the movement were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Margaret Fuller, and Amos Bronson Alcott.

Romanticism (or the Romantic Era) was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th cent in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education and natural history.

Love of Nature.

Emotions v/s Rationality: Romanticism placed human emotions, feelings, instinct and intuition above everything else. the Romantic writers trusted their emotions and feelings to create poetry.

Artist, the Creator: As the Romantic period emphasized on emotions, the position or role of the artist or the poet also gained supremacy.

Nationalism: The Romantics borrowed heavily from the folklore and the popular art. During the earlier periods, literature and art were considered to belong to the high class educated people, and the country folks were not considered fit to enjoy them. Also, the language used in these works were highly poetic, which was totally different from that which was spoken by people.

Exoticism: Along with Nationalism, the Romantics even developed the love of the exotic.

Supernatural: Another characteristic of Romanticism is the belief in the supernatural.

Писатели: Irving, Poe, Moby Dick.
14) Realism, Realist or Realistic are terms that describe any manifestation of philosophical realism, the belief that reality exists independently of observers, whether in philosophy itself or in the applied arts and sciences. In this broad sense it is frequently contrasted with Idealism. Realism in the arts concerns the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life. Political realism is a dominant school of thinking within the international relations discipline that prioritizes national interest and security over ideology, moral concerns and social reconstructions. In ethics moral realism takes the view that there are objective moral values. Scientific realism is the view that the world described by science is the real world and Mathematical realism a branch of philosophy of mathematics.

Two major literary currents in 19th-cent America merged in Mark Twain: popular frontier humor and local color, or "regionalism." These related literary approaches began in the 1830s -- and had even earlier roots in local oral traditions. In ragged frontier villages, on riverboats, in mining camps, and around cowboy campfires far from city amusements, storytelling flourished. Exaggeration, tall tales, incredible boasts, and comic workingmen heroes enlivened frontier literature. These humorous forms were found in many frontier regions -- in the "old Southwest" (the present-day inland South and the lower Midwest), the mining frontier, and the Pacific Coast. Each region had its colorful characters around whom stories collected: Mike Fink, the Mississippi riverboat brawler; Casey Jones, the brave railroad engineer; John Henry, the steel-driving African-American; Paul Bunyan, the giant logger whose fame was helped along by advertising; westerners Kit Carson, the Indian fighter, and Davy Crockett, the scout. Their exploits were exaggerated and enhanced in ballads, newspapers, and magazines.

In literature, regionalism or local color refers to fiction or poetry that focuses on specific features – including characters, dialects, customs, history, and topography – of a particular region.
15) Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. It was depicted as a literary movement that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalism is the outgrowth of literary realism, a prominent literary movement in mid-19th-cent France and elsewhere. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. They believed that one's heredity and social environment determine one's character. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine "scientifically" the underlying forces (e.g. the environment or heredity) influencing the actions of its subjects. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, racism, sex, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth. As a result, naturalistic writers were frequently criticized for focusing too much on human vice and misery.

The Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 and rapidly spread worldwide. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement.
16) William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer of novels, short stories, poetry and occasional screenplays.The majority of his works are based in his native state of Mississippi. Faulkner is considered one of the most important writers of the Southern literature of the United States.

Faulkner was known for his experimental style with meticulous attention to diction and cadence. In contrast to the minimalist understatement of his contemporary Ernest Hemingway, Faulkner made frequent use of "stream of consciousness" in his writing, and wrote often highly emotional, subtle, cerebral, complex, and sometimes Gothic or grotesque stories of a wide variety of characters including former slaves or descendants of slaves, poor white, agrarian, or working-class Southerners, and Southern aristocrats.

Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th cent.[1] Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. He finished four novels, This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, Tender is the Night and his most famous, The Great Gatsby. A fifth, unfinished novel, The Love of the Last Tycoon was published posthumously. Fitzgerald also wrote many short stories that treat themes of youth and promise along with despair and age.

The Jazz Age” (1918-1929) was an especially productive period of modernist literature. The Jazz Age was immortalized by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his classic novel The Great Gatsby, which describes the decadence and sexual freedom of the post-World War I generation.

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, influenced 20th-cent fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image.
17) The Southern Renaissance (also known as Southern Renascence) was the reinvigoration of American Southern literature that began in the 1920s and 1930s with the appearance of writers such as William Faulkner, Caroline Gordon, Elizabeth Madox Roberts, Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, Tennessee Williams, and Robert Penn Warren, among others. Themes: the South's troubled history in regards to racial issues. South's conservative culture. The Fugitives

The start of the Southern Renaissance is often traced back to the activities of "The Fugitives", a group of poets and critics who were based at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, just after the First World War. The group included John Crowe Ransom, Donald Davidson, Allen Tate, Robert Penn Warren, and others. Together they created the magazine The Fugitive (1922–1925), so named because the editors announced that they fled "from nothing faster than from the high-caste Brahmins of the Old South."

The Southern Agrarians (also known as the Twelve Southerners, the Vanderbilt Agrarians, the Nashville Agrarians, the Tennessee Agrarians, or the Fugitive Agrarians) were a group of twelve American writers, poets, essayists, and novelists, all with roots in the Southern United States, who joined together to write a pro-Southern agrarian manifesto, a collection of essays published in 1930 entitled I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition.

The Southern Agrarians formed an important branch of American populism. They contributed to the revival of Southern literature in the 1920s and 1930s now known as the Southern Renaissance. Most met each other as faculty and students at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. Richard Wright: Blueprint for Negro Writing (1937), Uncle Tom’s Children: Four Novellas (1938). James Baldwin: Notes of a Native Son. Ralph Ellison: The Invisible Man
18) The Nonfiction Novel. The creation of "ruptures, gaps, and ironies that continually remind the reader that an author is present" and which demonstrate "how individuals use fictional соnstructions to make order of real-life events”

Continued the fundamental philosophical assumptions of modernism

Continued its tendency toward historical discontinuity

Continued its preoccupation with alienation

Continued to focus on asocial individualism

Postmodernism’s tendency to use solipsism, a philosophical perspective that holds that one саn only truly know oneself and that all other experiences are potentially false since they are filtered through the senses

The tendency of the modernists

- to construct intricate forms

- to interweave symbols elaborately

- to create works of art that, although opposed to some established present order, create within themselves an ordered universe

Philosophy of Postmodernism

Denial of order

Presentation of highly fragmented universes in the created world of art

Presentation of critical theories that are а form of phenomenology

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Joseph Неllеr Norman Mailer. Influenced by Joyce and Faulkner
19) In the United States, Ishmael Reed, Leslie Marmon Silko, Ralph Ellison, N. Scott Momaday, Toni Morrison, Rudolfo Anaya, Sandra Cisneros, Maxine Hong Kingston, and Jessica Hagedorn are among the notable writers of color who have emerged since World War II. Although definitely individual and widely diverse, they are all-American in their collective mixture of African American, Native American, Asian American, and Hispanic strains. The work of each, although distinct, has not remained in cultural isolation but has enriched the inclusive literary treasury of the United States.

Born Chloe Anthony Wofford, in 1931 in Lorain (Ohio), the second of four children in a black working-class family. Displayed an early interest in literature. Studied humanities at Howard and Cornell Universities, followed by an academic career at Texas Southern University, Howard University, Yale, and since 1989, a chair at Princeton University. She has also worked as an editor for Random House, a critic, and given numerous public lectures, specializing in African-American literature. She made her debut as a novelist in 1970, soon gaining the attention of both critics and a wider audience for her epic power, unerring ear for dialogue, and her poetically-charged and richly-expressive depictions of Black America. A member since 1981 of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, she has been awarded a number of literary distinctions, among them the Pulitzer Prize in 1988.
20) Got the noble prize in 1936. He was influenced by Henric Ibsen, August Strindberg and Maurice Maeterlinck. He is remembered for realist, naturalist and expressionist drama. Moreover the credit goes to Eugene O’Neill for his realist and naturalistic play. Got the subject matter from ancient Greek time and mix it with Freudian psychoanalysis.For example Desire Under the Elms is completely realistic drama set in 19 th centuries New England (America). Its theme is sexual desire and the desire of land. Long Day’s Journey in to Night (1956) is considered by many critics to be a triumph of realistic drama and O’Neill’s finest play. It is about human responsibility and love-hate with in a family. The father and his son bitterly discuss the past, while waiting for their drug- addict mother to come down stains.

O’Neill also started writing autobiographical play and before him there is no one to write in such trend, and being autobiographical, the subject of the play is O’ Neill’s early childhood with unrealized hope. This drama simply tries to deny the authenticity of American dream. American society was shocked by this drama because that society sought the subject matter of money.

TENNESSE WILLIAMS

ARTHUR MILLER

EDWARD ALBEE

BROADWAY

OFF BROADWAY

1) enlightment 2nd part of the 17 th -18th centure. The writters and philosofists of this age protested against the sovivals of feodalizm in thich they saw the main evil of this time. Man they thought was vertains by nature and wise was duty ignorence to they started a pubic movement for enlighting the people. This movement was called "the enlightment". The enlighters belived in power of reason and the period was also called "the age of reason". The enlightment is associated with a materialistic view of human beings, an optimism about their progress through education and science. Focus on reason & truth, experience, mistrust of religion. Against social inequality, religious hypocrisy, immorality of aristocracy, man’s inborn goodness, man-nature, educational power of art, hope to improve morality, to punish evel=didactic novel. This period saw a remarkable rise in literature. English literature of this period may be characterise by the following features: 1.The rise of the political pamphlets and issue. The novel became the leading genre. 2. The hero of the novel was no longer a prince but a representative of the middle class. The literature of this age may be divided into 3 periods: The 1st period is caracterised by classisizm in poetry. The greatest follower of the classical style was Alexander Pope. There appeared the first realistic novels written by Defoe and Swift. The 2nd period saw the development of the realistic social novel, represented by Richardson, Fielding and others. The 3'rd period is marked by the apperience of a new trends: sentimentalizm. Typified by the works of Goldsmith and Stern.

3) Romanticism (18th cent-the mid19th)emphasizes passion rather than reason, and imagination and inspiration rather than logic. Romanticism favors full expression of the emotions, and free, spontaneous action rather than restraint and order. More generally, Romanticism is that attitude or state of mind that allies itself with the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imagination, and the emotional and the most often takes for its subject matter history, rational striving and the sublime beauties of nature.

Among the characteristic attitudes of Romanticism were the following: a deepened appreciation of the beauties of nature; a general exaltation of emotion over reason and of the senses over intellect; a turning in upon the self and a heightened examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities; a preoccupation with the genius, the hero, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles, thoughts rather than actions (lonely individual, given to meditation and seeking for freedom) contradicts to the society, lives by heart; a new view of the artist as a supremely individual creator; an emphasis upon imagination as a gateway to transcendent experience and spiritual truth; an obsessive interest in folk culture, national and ethnic cultural origins, and the medieval era; and a predilection for the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic.

Marry Shelly, Robert Burns, W.Scott, Emily Bronte

5) In Victorian period appeared a new literary trend called critical realism. E critical realism of the 19th cent flourished in the 40s and in the early 50s. It found its expression in the form of novel. The critical realists, most of whom were novelists, described with much vividness and artistic skill the chief traits of the E society and criticized the capitalist system from a democratic viewpoint.

Ch Dickens(1812-1870) a man of hard work. Features of his works: character sketches and exaggeration; broad humour and penetrating satire; complicated and fascinating plot; the power of exposure. Ch Dickens was perhaps the most popular novelist of the period. He serialized most of his novels, which may explain some of his weak plots. Dickens wrote vividly about London life and the struggles of the poor, but in a good-humoured fashion which was acceptable to readers of all classes. His early works such as the Pickwick Papers are masterpieces of comedy. Later his works became darker, without losing his genius for caricature: Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, Great Expectations.

William Thackeray wrote Vanity Fair, a satire of high classes in E society. Just like Dickens, Thackeray is one of the greatest critical realists of the 19th c Europe. He paints life as he has seen it. With his precise and thorough observation, rich knowledge of social life and of the human heart, the pictures in his novels are accurate and true to life. Thackeray is a satirist. His satire is caustic and his humour subtle. Besides being a realist and satirist, Thackeray is a moralist. His aim is to produce a moral impression in all his novels. Features: mockery at aristocratic morals

7) Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had force in shaping human character. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. They believed that one's heredity and social environment determine one's character.

Naturalism also attempts to determine "scientifically" the underlying forces (environment, heredity). Naturalistic works showed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, racism, sex, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth.

George Gissing, George Moore, Артур Моррисон.

Neo-Romanticism - movement of the 1930s to early 1950s. Neo-Romantic artists focused on a personal, poetic vision of the landscape and on the vulnerable human body, in part as an response to the threat of invasion during WWII.

It is considered in opposition to naturalism. The naturalist in art stresses external observation, whereas the neo-romantic adds feeling and internal observation. These artists tend to draw their inspiration from artists of the age of high romanticism, they react in general to the 'ugly' modern world of machines, new cities, and profit. Characteristic themes include longing for perfect love, utopian landscapes, romantic death, and history-in-landscape. Neo-romanticism is often accused by critics of being too insular. A more persuasive criticism is that neo-romanticism lacks an adequate conception of evil in the modern world. Robert Stevenson (Treasure Island), Rudyard Kipling, Conan Doyle

9) Modernistic lit-re (1900-mid1920s) tends to revolve around the themes of individualism, disregard to social problems, emphasis of hero’s private world, the randomness of life, mistrust of institutions (government, religion) and the disbelief in any absolute truths, and to involve a literary structure that departs from conventionality and realism.

Modernism as a literary movement is seen as a reaction to the emergence of city life as a central force in society. Modernist writing is more interested in getting the writers ideas, opinions, and thoughts out into the public at as high a volume as possible. The breaking down of social norms, rejection of standard social ideas and traditional thoughts and expectations, objection to religion and anger towards the effects of the world wars, and the rejection of the truth are topics widely seen in this literary era. A rejection of history, social systems, and a sense of loneliness are also common themes. The spirit of modernism—a radical and utopian- stimulated by new ideas in anthropology, psychology, philosophy, political theory, and psychoanalysis—was in the air.

People began to doubt everything they were supposed to believe in surrounding ideas associated with the government, politics, religion, and everyday social norms. Trust in higher powers and authority figures began to falter, and the inability to sort through the chaos of these mixed emotions left people disheartened, confused, and angry. This feeling of betrayal and uncertainty towards tradition influenced the writing of British authors between 1914-1919 both stylistically and in form.(J. Joyce)

11) The colonial period in Am history lasts from the beg-g of the settlement at Jamestown in 1607 to the ending of the Am Revolution in 1783. The first books written by settlers from England were historical records. No great literature created. The early literature of exploration, made up of diaries, letters, travel journals, ships' logs, and reports to the explorers' financial backers. The latter part of the colonial period, leading up to the Am Revolution,was categorized by the Age of Reason or the Enlightenment (1750-1800).

The lit-re of this period was mostly political by character and dealt with the problems of Am freedom – Independence. As the result at that time journalism flourished in lit-re. The Am enlighteners put reason above religion; Publicism was a very influential field of public thought. Enlighteners propagated the ideas of democracy, the republican order, were against monarchy. Mainly pamphlets (Thomas Paine).

By the time of the Am Revolution, Am writers developed styles of writing that grew from distinctly Am experiences. The fascination with science, nature, freedom, and innovation came through in the writings of the Revolutionary period. The colonists developed their own way of speaking, no longer copying the more formal style of British writers.

The emergence of modern science and the scientific method had much to do with this new emphasis on reason. Discoveries made by scientists were changing the ways people viewed the universe. From this mixtures of outlooks came a very triumphant time in American life, encouraging writers such as B Franklin. He recorded his early life in his famous Autobiography. He thought that people need a stable government and economy before they could make great advances in cultural pursuits such as lit-re, music, and painting. Thomas Jefferson, the 3rd President of the US, was the author of the Declaration of Independence, 1st sentence is in the memory of all readers.

13) Romanticism in America coincided with the period of national expansion and the discovery of a distinctive Am voice. R-sm emphasized intuition, imagination, and feeling. The development of the self became a major theme; self-awareness a primary method. New compound words with positive meanings emerged: "self-realization," "self-expression, "self-reliance." R-sm was affirmative and appropriate for most Am poets and creative essayists. Heroes typically faced risk, or even certain destruction, in the pursuit of metaphysical self-discovery. The poetry which Americans wrote and read was all romantic until the 1920s. Dark r-sm emerged from the Transcendental philosophical movement popular in 19th-cent Am Dark Romantics are much less confident about the notion that perfection is an innate quality of mankind. Dark Romantics present individuals as prone to sin and self-destruction, not as inherently possessing divinity and wisdom. The natural world is dark, decaying, and mysterious; when it does reveal truth to man, its revelations are evil and hellish. Works of Dark R-sm frequently show individuals failing in their attempts to make changes for the better. Edgar Allan Poe Founder of the mystic story, inventor of science-fiction genre. Much of his poetry and prose features his characteristic interest in exploring the psychology of man. Herman Melville Best known during his lifetime for his travel books, a 20th-cent revival in the study of Herman Melville’s works has left “Moby-Dick” and “Bartleby the Scrivener” among his most highly regarded.

15) Naturalism was a literary movement taking place from 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. It was depicted as a literary movement that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalism is the outgrowth of literary realism. Naturalistic writers were influenced by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, racism, sex, violence, prejudice, disease, corruption, prostitution, and filth. As a result, naturalistic writers were frequently criticized for focusing too much on human vice and misery.

Stephen Crane, Jack London, Theodore Dreiser: these naturalists used naturalism to relate the individual to society. Often they exposed social problems and were influenced by Darwinian thought. Naturalists imagined society as a blind machine, godless and out of control. Am naturalism must be defined rather loosely, as a reaction against the realist fiction of the 1870s-1880s, whose scope was limited to middle-class or "local color" topics, with taboos on sexuality and violence. Naturalist fiction in the US often concentrated on the non-Anglo, ethnically marked inhabitants of the growing Am cities, many of them immigrants and most belonging to a class-spectrum ranging from the destitute to the lower middle-class. The fiction of T Dreiser and Stephen Crane, themselves from established middle-class

17) The Cold War (1945–1963), The Civil Rights Era (1865–1970), The Vietnam War (1945-1975)

Post-war period- antiwar novels – war is presented as something absurd (not like in Russian – heroic)

The Beat Generation (1950s) works highlighted the primacy of such Beat Generation essentials as spontaneity, open emotion, visceral (примитивный) engagement in often gritty worldly experiences; in a seeming paradox, the Beats often emphasized a spiritual aspiration, using concepts and imagery from Buddhism, Catholicism, and so on. Thus members of the Beat Generation sought a synthesis of the "beaten down" (унылый) and the "beatific" (жизнерадостный), as Kerouac described it. (Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs)

Southern School – the problem of the past: Southern writing of the l960s tended, like the then still largely agrarian southern region, to adhere to time-honored traditions. It remained rooted in realism and an ethical, if not religious, vision during this decade of radical change. Recurring southern themes include family, the family home, history, the land, religion, guilt, identity, death, and the search for redemptive meaning in life. Like William Faulkner and Thomas Wolfe (Look Homeward, Angel, 1929), who inspired the "southern renaissance" in literature, many southern writers of the 1960s were scholars and elaborate stylists, revering the written word as a link with traditions rooted in the classical world. J.D. Salinger The Catcher in the Rye (1951)

19) In the United States, Ishmael Reed, Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison (nobel prize), Rudolfo, Maxine Hong Kingston, and Jessica Hagedorn are among the notable writers of color who have emerged since World War II. Although definitely individual and widely diverse, they are all-American in their collective mixture of African American, Native American, Asian American, and Hispanic strains. The work of each, although distinct, has not remained in cultural isolation but has enriched the inclusive literary treasury of the United States.

Diversity of cultures

Melting pot (assimilate – all distinctive features vanish), salad bowl (features preserve-national, ethnic), rainbow, mosaic

All Am culture consists of many cultures, and they together form am culture.

Now to be assimilated doesn’t mean to lose your own characteristics

There is no dominating culture

Influence of postmodernism: all cultures are equal, equivalent.

Many cultures, they interact.

Themes: writes reflect their own national traditions(their culture out from others), mythology, folk, beliefs, musical traditions(jazz, blues)- songs- historical books

Problem of generations (born a-b), one’s identity

Gender, cultural belonging


  1. What are the main sources of the Enlightment ideas?

  2. In what way did the polemics between Richardson and Fielding stimulate the development of the novel?

  3. Romanticism qualities. What ideas of W. Scott proved crucial for the development of Realism in E lit-re? Why are W. Scott and G.G. Byron considered to be “European” writers?

  4. What are the peculiarities of interaction between English Romanticism and Realism? Can Heathcliff be regarded as a catalyst in “Wuthering Heights” by E. Bronte?

  5. E Critical Realism peculiar features (Ch. Dickens, W.M. Thackeray)

  6. English Realism of the second half of the 19th century (G. Elliot, G. Meredith, S. Butler)

  7. English Naturalism peculiarities. What are the main themes and strategies in the literature of English Neo-Romanticism?

  8. G.B. Shaw’s contribution to world drama. What are the major influences on his work?

  9. Modernist Lit-re strengths and weaknesses. In what way did Modernism influence the development of E lit-re?

  10. Post-modernism qualities. Can J. Fowles be regarded as a postmodernist writer? If yes, why?

  11. The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods in US literature. B. Franklin, T. Jefferson

  12. The rise of US national literature. W. Irving, J.F. Cooper

  13. Am romanticism. Two generations of Am Romanticism

  14. Realism in American literature

  15. Naturalism and realism in the US literature. S. Crane, Th. Dreiser, J. London

  16. US modernist writers. W. Faulkner, F.S. Fitzgerald, E. Hemingway

  17. The US literature of 1940-60s. The Southern school of American Lit-re

  18. Postmodernism in the USA. J. Heller, K. Vonnegut

  19. Multiculturalism in American Literature. T. Morrison

  20. The development of US drama. Eugene O’Neil
















10) The term Postmodern lit-re is used to describe опр characteristics of post–WWII lit-re and a reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in Modernist literature. Arguably postmodernism peaked in the 60’s-70’s. The 1st generation of postmodernists produced texts that simultaneously questioned and violated the conventions of traditional narrative.

The features are the erosion of the boundaries between High art and Low, development of numerous hybrid genres, the authors write not in 1 certain genre but they combine and mix them, ”death of author” they now don’t press their opinion on a reader but a story only. Features: irony, playfulness, black humor, metafiction, pastiche (combine together multiple elements). In Postmodernist lit-re this can be an respect to or a parody of past styles. It can be seen as a representation of the chaotic, pluralistic, or information-drenched aspects of postmodern society.

John Fowles was E novelist whose teasing, multilayered fiction explored the tensions between free will and the constraints of society, even as it played with traditional novelistic conventions and challenged readers to find their own interpretations. Fowles successfully reveals to the reader his belief that people should not adhere to a prescribed path; they should be free to pave their way of their own will. He combined the melodrama of a 19th-cent Victorian novel with the sensibility of a 20th-cent postmodern narrator, offering his readers 2 alternative endings from which to choose and at one point inserting himself into the book as a character who accompanies the hero.

8) George Bernard Shaw Irish-born writer, most significant British dramatist since Shakespeare. In addition to being a playwright, he was also the pamphleteer since Swift and the most readable music critic and best theater critic of his generation. Nearly all his writings (Henrik Ibsen (plays dealing realistically with psychological and social problems won him recognition as the father of modern drama) address prevailing social problems, but have a vein of comedy. He was awarded a Nobel Prize for Lit-re for his contributions.

Shaw valued the way the stage could become a platform for the communication of ideas: through his own plays he sought to confront audiences with issues of social and political importance. He aimed to stimulate the minds of London's theatre-goers. One of the major innovations of Shavian drama was the unusually large role he gave to thought and debate with a love of wordplay and paradox. Place to tell people the truth about the society they live in. New: intellectual drama (main – not intrigue or plot, but debates, clever verbal duels of heroes), “plays-discussions”, theater of ideas. In the process he also created a new genre, the serious farce which consisted of using the techniques of comedy to advance serious views on humanity, society, and political systems. New: drama becomes a play for reading, includes vast stage direction, with not only set descriptions, but charact-s of the heroes; some remarks tend to be inserted chapters of narrative kind. His bold, critical intelligence and sharp pen, brought to bear on contemporary issues, helped form the thought of his own and later generations.

6) The 2nd half of the 19th cent has been called the positivist age. It was an age of faith in all knowledge which would derive from science and scientific objective methods which could solve all human problems. UK colonial country, industrialized, but gradually loses its power and deepens all social and economic contradictions: socialist league, conflict workers-bourgeoisie (more and more power), need new markets, the cult of money, complete degradation of moral values follows. Queen Victoria’s reign ended->feeling of emptiness. Absence of spirituality, religious feelings. People tried to believe in anything.

George Eliot after 1848 less social tension, saw a kind of possibility for social balance and welfare. Interest to ethical problems, psychology of an individual. Eliot – ideas of social equality, of evolution, sometimes biological interpretation of human behavior. Believes in humanism, in man, altruism improves life, in moral rebirth of the society. F-s: rural England, common people, sympathetic to them, seeks the positive hero among them, opposes them to the corrupted rich. Everyday life in its most common displays, mirroring the everyday routine.

George Meredith works are highly cerebral, containing character studies of great psychological insight. His works display a sophisticated comic sense and reflect his concern for social problems. Dramatized the novel, greater interest to psychological analysis, satire. Importance of comic spirit. deeper psychological analysis of the character is a means of comprehending social problems. Goes away from common details, but concentrates greatly on feelings and thoughts. Intellectual character of prose. Metaphoric language. New devices in novel: dramatized, new form of dialogue close to that of plays. Basis for neo-romanticism. Samuel Butler criticized the customs and manners of contemporary England. Uses allegory, grotesque, parody of church and judicial phraseology.

4) Romanticism (18th cent) gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. An emphasis on personal freedom and liberty is a distinction of Romanticism. Logic, reason and creativity were valued more highly than conformist or cliche topics. Heroes and heroines of Romantic novels often questioned their roles in society and purposes in life. Literature from this period often references nature as a source of inspiration and artistic value. Romanticists tried to escape from reality. Romantic themes: nature, love, history. Romantic attitudes: sensibility, melancholy, individualism, rebelliousness. The romantics cultivated imaginative freedom.

Realism (19th cent) in lit-re is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity. Realism concerns the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life. Stress on reason and positivism, and a faith in the power of the artist to show reality.

Industrialization ? new class (workers vs bourgeoisie), railroads, factories, rural population to town, unemployment, overpopulation.

Realist-followed and described reality, romant-tried to escape from reality Romanticism +Realism. good sense – uncontrollable emotion, cool detachment – strong passion, traditional society – wild nature, typical people – imaginary ghosts (typical characters – unique eccentric characters),conventional houses – haunted mansions. everyday life – unusual happenings. low-key prose – vivid language

2) The E novel of today was largely created by Henry Fielding and Samuel Richardson. Richardson's works, written in the form of a series of letters, are experiments in psychological analysis. Fielding's novels, in which the author himself tells the story and controls the plot structure, are considered the 1st accurate portrayal of contemporary manners. The E author and magistrate Henry Fielding (1707-1754) was one of the great novelists of the 18th cent. His fiction, plays, essays, and legal pamphlets show he was a humane and witty man, with a passion for reform and justice.

In 1740 Richardson published a novel, Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded, book was an immediate success, being read as a lesson in morality by all young ladies. Fielding could not resist spoofing this, to him, ridiculous tale in an unsigned pamphlet, An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews (1741), in which the virtuous heroine is hilariously exposed as a conniving wench.

Continuing the attack on Richardson, Fielding wrote The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr. Abraham Adams (1742). His purpose in this book, however, was more than parody, for he intended, as he announced in the preface, a "kind of writing which I do not remember to have seen hitherto attempted in our language." In this new kind of writing, which Fielding called a "comic epic poem in prose," he creatively blended two classical traditions: that of the epic, which had been poetic, and that of the drama, but emphasizing the comic rather than the tragic. Another distinction of Joseph Andrews and of the novels to come was the use of everyday reality of character and action as opposed to the fables of the past.

20 American didn’t have their own drama until Eugene O’Neil – “Long Days Journey into Night”. O'Neill's plays were among the first to introduce into American drama the techniques of realism, associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. He is remembered for realist, naturalist and expressionist drama. Got the subject matter from ancient Greek time and mix it with Freudian psychoanalysis. Classical traditions+innovations

has won Nobel prize – he had innovative elements and used ancient Greece plays

His plays were among the first to include speeches in American ethnic. His plays involve characters who inhabit the fringes of society, engaging in depraved behavior, where they struggle to maintain their hopes and aspirations but ultimately slide into disillusionment and despair. O'Neill wrote only one comedy (Ah, Wilderness!): all his other plays involve some degree of tragedy and personal pessimism.

He was followed by many other playwrights. Tennessee Williams, Artur Miller


18) Postmodernism, The Nonfiction Novel. The creation of "ruptures, gaps, and ironies that continually remind the reader that an author is present" and which demonstrate "how individuals use fictional соnstructions to make order of real-life events”.

Continued the fundamental philosophical assumptions of modernism; Continued its tendency toward historical discontinuity; Continued its preoccupation with alienation; Continued to focus on asocial individualism

The theme of the suburbanization of America, the decline of the city, and apocalyptic visions of the devastated city; Fascination about how the public life of the nation intersects with the private lives of its citizens; Postmodernism’s tendency to use solipsism, a philosophical perspective that holds that one саn only truly know oneself and that all other experiences are potentially false since they are filtered through the senses.

The tendency of the modernists: - to construct complex forms; - to interweave symbols elaborately; - to create works of art that, although opposed to some established present order, create within themselves an ordered universe.

Philosophy of Postmodernism: Denial of order; Presentation of highly fragmented universes in the created world of art; Presentation of critical theories that are а form of phenomenology.

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Joseph Неllеr Norman Mailer. Influenced by Joyce and Faulkner

16) William Faulkner (1897) was an Am writer of novels, short stories, poetry & occasional screenplays. The majority of his works are based in his native state of Mississippi. Faulkner is considered one of the most important writers of the Southern lit-re of the US. Faulkner was known for his experimental style with meticulous attention to diction & cadence. Faulkner made frequent use of "stream of consciousness" in his writing, & wrote often highly emotional, subtle, cerebral, complex, and sometimes Gothic or grotesque stories of a wide variety of characters including former slaves or descendants of slaves, poor white, agrarian, or working-class Southerners, & South aristocrats.

Francis Scott Fitzgerald (1896) was an Am author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigm writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined himself. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest Am writers of the 20th cent. Fitzgerald is considered a member of the "Lost Generation" of the 1920s. Fitzgerald also wrote many short stories that treat themes of youth and promise along with despair and age. “The Jazz Age” (1918) was an especially productive period of modernist lit-re. The Jazz Age was immortalized by F. Scott Fitzgerald in his classic novel The Great Gatsby, which describes the decadence and sexual freedom of the post-WWI generation.

Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899) was an Am author and journalist. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement, influenced 20th-cent fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image.

14) Realism developed in the direction of naturalism - emphasis on pragmatism, social conditions, environment, perfect for describing Am reality. During the late 19th cen through the early 20th cen the US experienced enormous industrial, economic, social and cultural change. A continuous wave of European immigration and the rising potential for international trade brought increasing growth and prosperity to America. Through art and artistic expression, Am Realism attempted to portray the exhaustion and cultural exhuberance of the figurative Am landscape and the life of ordinary Americans at home. Writers and authors told a new story about Americans; Pulling away from fantasy and focusing on the now.

Mark Twain: popular frontier humor and local color, or "regionalism." These related literary approaches began in the 1830s- and had even earlier roots in local oral traditions. Exaggeration, tall tales, incredible boasts, and comic workingmen heroes enlivened frontier literature.

Twain's style, based on vigorous, realistic, colloquial American speech, gave American writers a new appreciation of their national voice. Twain was the first major author to come from the interior of the country, and he captured its distinctive, humorous slang and iconoclasm. For Twain and other American writers of the late 19th century, realism was not merely a literary technique: It was a way of speaking truth and exploding worn-out conventions. Twain is best known for his works Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

12) Disagreement about how Am lit-re should grow: 1. Am Lit-re still lacked national feeling; needed books which expressed special character of the nation; 2. too young to develop declare its independence from the British literary tradition, still a branch of E culture; 3. The call for a national lit-re was a mistake; good lit-re should be universal.

Novel – the first popular lit-re of the newly independent US-has been considered a dangerous form of lit-re by the Am Puritans who thought novels put immortal ideas into the head of young people

Irving: -Plots are based on old German folk tales;

-Few of the stories are really original; his writing materials come from nations of Europe;

-the first Am to earn his living through literature;

-considered feeling and language as more important elements in his art than story or character; regarded the story simply “as a frame on which I sketch my materials”

Cooper:

-his books contain much thoughtful criticism of Am society;

-In Europe, Cooper was known as “the American Walter Scott” (who wrote adventure stories filled with historical details)

-considered his works to be completely original

-their characters are “American,” the pioneer, the Indian and the Yankee sailor

The Spy (1821), his first successful novel.



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