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Таблица (Плакат) - Modals (Модальные глаголы) - файл 1.docx


Таблица (Плакат) - Modals (Модальные глаголы)
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MODALS

ABILITY

CAN

BE ABLE TO

ability in present or future

expresses physical ability

Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box.

expresses an acquired skill

Maria can play the piano. She’s been taking lessons for many years.

COULD

past ability

I could run fast when I was younger.

POLITE REQUESTS

MIGHT I

quite formal and polite; is used much less frequently than may I or could I

Might I ask you a personal question?

MAY I

COULD I

are used to request permission;

are equally polite

May I borrow your pen, please?

Could I use your cell phone?

CAN I

is quite informal

Can I borrow your pencil?

WOULD YOU

COULD YOU

polite request;

are equally polite

Would you pass the salt, please?

Could you, please, open the door?

WILL YOU

is considered a little bit less polite

Will you, please, do me a favor?

CAN YOU

is used informally

Can you help me with this task?

WOULD YOU MIND

asking permission

IF I DID SMTH

Would you mind if I closed the door?

asking someone to do something

DOING SMTH FOR ME

Would you mind repeating that?

ADVICE

HAD BETTER

is usually stronger; implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences

You had better take care of that cut on your hand soon, or it will get infected.

SHOULD

OUGHT TO

express advisability;

have the same meaning

You should study harder.

Drivers ought to obey the speed limit.

NECESSITY

MUST

is stronger, indicates urgency, or stresses importance

All applicants must take an entrance exam.

HAVE TO

is used more commonly

I have to be home by eight.

HAVE GOT TO

is informal; is used primarily in spoken English

I’ve got to go now.

MUSTN’T

prohibition; “DON’T DO THIS!”

You mustn’t tell anyone my secret!

DON’T HAVE TO

lack of necessity; “It’s not necessary.”

Tomorrow is a holiday. We don’t have to go to class.

POSSIBILITY

^ DEGREES OF CERTAINTY

PRESENT TIME; POSITIVE

PRESENT TIME; NEGATIVE

95% SURE

MUST

99% SURE

COULDN’T

CAN’T

<50% SURE

MAY

MIGHT

COULD

95% SURE

MUSTN’T

<50% SURE

MAY NOT

MIGHT NOT

^ PART TIME; POSITIVE

PAST TIME; NEGATIVE

95% SURE

MUST

99% SURE

COULDN’T

CAN’T

<50% SURE

MAY

MIGHT

COULD

95% SURE

MUSTN’T

<50% SURE

^ MAY NOT

MIGHT NOT

FUTURE TIME; POSITIVE







90% SURE

SHOULD

OUGHT TO







<50% SURE

^ MAY

MIGHT

COULD









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