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Таблица (Плакат) - Clauses (Придаточные предложения) - файл 1.docx


Таблица (Плакат) - Clauses (Придаточные предложения)
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CLAUSES

A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence.

A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies, or gives further information about a noun.

The meeting The problem The moviethat / which I went to was interesting.we talked about was urgent.was shown to us was intriguing.

We have a friendThe girlThe people who /that plays the piano.won the competition was happy.helped me were very nice.

The professorThe man The girl,whose course I'm taking is excellent.brand-new car was stolen called the police.parents are both teachers, won the competition.

There was a timeEarly spring is the period1945 is the year when dinosaurs dominated the Earth.many people get sick.World War II ended.

^ The hotelThe houseThe park where we stayed was situated in a picturesque region.they lived was built in the 19th century.I usually walk is not far from my house.

,all, both, each, many, most, neither, none, some …the first, the second,…, half, a third,…the best, the biggest, …the top, the surface, the bottom, the sides, … of whomof which… ,

Benjamin Franklin, a famous American statesman, was a man of wide interests.

Elizabeth I, the queen of England, reigned in a period of peace and prosperity.

Saturn, the 6th planet from the Sun, is surrounded by a system of icy rings.

Saint-Petersburg, Russia’s 2nd largest city, has magnificent architecture.

^ NOUN CLAUSES

I knowdon't knowwonder… whatwherewhowhenwhose they were quarreling about.he'll spend the holidays.she is talking to.the train arrives.flash drive that is.

I knowdon't knowwondercan't answer…whetherifwhether or notwhetherifwhetherthey have any questions.she is good in mathematics.they will provide any help.he came on time or not.she has succeeded or not.they were searching for you.

I thinkam sureunderstandknowdidn't know that economics is a difficult subject.they will be late.it wasn't easy for you to pass this test.he hasn't done any exercises.

I knowdon't knowwonder… whatwherewhomwhenwhosewhichhowwhetherto do.to go.to ask for helpto submit this paper.advice to follow.subject to choose.to solve this problem.to believe him or not.


^ COMMON VERBS THAT ARE FOLLOWED BY THAT-CLAUSES





agree that

assume that

believe that

conclude that

decide that



discover that

doubt that

dream that

fear that

feel that



figure out that

find out that

forget that

guess that

hear that



hope that

imagine that

indicate that

know that

learn that



notice that

observe that

predict that

presume that

pretend that



prove that

read that

realize that

recall that

recognize that



regret that

remember that

reveal that

say that

show that



suppose that

suspect that

teach that

think that




^ SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

IMPORTANCE

vital, crucial, critical, imperative, essential, important, necessary, urgent, …

It isvitalcrucialessencial that I/you/he... do this assignement as soon as possible.be informed about everything.not drink any alcohol before driving.

^ ADVICE, SUGGESTION

advise, propose, recommend, suggest, counsel, urge, …

I advisecounselrecommend that you/he... follow the instructions given in the book.be examined by a doctor.not postpone the task until tomorrow.


I suggestrecommend that JohnDavid should study this topic.do these exercises.

^ DEMAND, ORDER

ask, demand, request, insist, order, command, …

I demandrequestinsist that you/he... leave my house at once.be permitted to enter immediately.not do anything without my permission.

^ REPORTED SPEECH

Reported speech refers to using a noun clause to report what someone has said.

If the reporting verb is in a past form, the verbs in the noun clause are also in a past form.

I usually study hard.”

I am studying now.”

I have studied.”

I have been studying.”

I will study.”

He said, “I am going to study.”

I studied.”

I had studied.”

I can study very hard.”

I may study.”

I must study.”

I have to study.”

studied hard.

was studying then.

had studied.

had been studying.

would study.

He said that he was going to study.

had studied.

had studied.

could study….

might study.

had to study.

had to study.

She ordered, “Clean your room.”

He told me, “Do your tasks.”


He asked, “Do you have any problems?”

She asked, “Are you listening?”

She ordered to clean my room.

He told me to do my tasks.


He asked if I had any problems.

She asked whether I were listening.

^ NO CHANGE:

He said, “I shouldought tomight study.”

He said, “The world is round.”


He said that he shouldought tomight study.”

He said that the world is round.

^ ADVERB CLAUSES

TIME

CAUSE AND EFFECT

CONTRAST

CONDITION

after

before

when

while

as

as soon as

since

until

by the time

once

as/so long as

every tine

the first time

the last time

the next time

because

now that

since

even though

although

though

if

unless (= if not)

only if

whether or not

even if

in case

in the event that

^ DIRECT CONTRAST

while

whereas






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