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Практическое занятие 1 ( 2 ч)

Перевод английских слов, не имеющих непосредственных лексических соответствий в русском язык (Лексические трансформации).
Цель: ознакомить с основными лексическими трансформациями, научить применять их при переводе

Контрольные вопросы

  • Каковы основные способы перевода английского слова, не имеющего соответствий в русском языке?

  • В чем сущность использования приема транскрипции при переводе?

  • В чем сущность использования приема транслитерации при переводе?

  • Что такое калькирование английского слова в переводе?

  • В чем различие между переводом – объяснением в словаре и описательным переводом слова в контексте?

  • Каковы сравнительные достоинства и недостатки приемов транскрипции и описательного перевода?

  • В каких случаях переводчику следует давать пояснения и примечания, отсутствующие в английском тексте?

  • Каковы общие принципы передачи собственных имен?

  • Как передаются в переводе имена и названия, состоящие из нескольких элементов?



Задания для аудиторной работы .
I. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода.

  1. Рекомендуемые правила переводческой транскрипции. С.76-78.

  2. Упр.1, с.78-79

  3. Упр.4, с.81.

  4. Упр.7, с.84. (д.з.)

  5. Упр.1, с.94. (д.з.)

  6. Упр.8, с.100. (д.з.)



    1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на имена собственные и географические названия.

  1. Eton College was founded by King Henry VI in 1440, when he was only eighteen.

  2. Henry James is still read, discussed, admired.

  3. Now Ceaser’s position grew critical, as he was vulnerable to attack from the rear.

  4. The silver Snake River cuts through hilly western Idaho.

  5. A hundred paces from this fountainhead of the Danube lies the water-head of the Rhine, which ends its 820-mile course in the North Sea.

  6. The Duke of Buckingham failed to induce Louis XIII and Richelieu to adopt his grandiose scheme to attack the Spanish Netherlands.




    1. Используйте прием описательного перевода для передачи на русский язык выделенных слов и словосочетаний:

A

  1. He…(the beginning writer)…, discovered a bread-and-butter field in the agricultural weeklies and trade journals, though among the religious weeklies he found he could easily starve.

  2. Rendel was something of a rarity among British diplomatists in that he made a practice of talking at length to journalists.

  3. The spendthrift years have marked him.

  4. Mr. Bellby had the ghost of an Irish brogue.

  5. After the strike vote many participants of the meeting were beaten up by the Ford plant vigilants.

B

  1. The union has reported wide-spread success in its nation-wide campaign for a boycott of scab sugar.

  2. Dikes, who on his return from a secret mission to Russia in 1919 had been knighted and feted as a hero, was a rarity since it is generally the fashion to regard espionage as an unpleasant occupation.

  3. The president of the CIO Auto Workers Union, was not at the rally; instead he redbaited the meeting and falsely charged that it was a plot against him.

  4. In one of his whistle-stop speeches the Presidential nominee briefly outlined his attitude towards civil rights program.

  5. One of the planks in the Tory programme is to reduce personal consumption: this is to be done partly by rationing of the purse.




    1. Переведите следующие предложения , обратив особое внимание на передачу географических названии:

  1. In the war of 1914-1918 Great Britain lost nearly a million of her sons, some 200,000 of them in Churchill’s abortive effort to free the passage of the Dardanelles.

  2. The Lowlands are penetrated by three great estuaries, into which flow the three most important Scottish rivers – the Tay, the Forth, the Clyde.

  3. George went out and ate ices at a pastrycook’s shop in Charing Cross; tried a new coat in Pall-Mall; played eleven games at billiards with Captain Cannon, of which he won eight, and returned to Russel Square half-an-hour late for dinner, but in very good humour.

  4. Murat, the King Naples, was shot in 1815.

  5. It was Hitler himself who gave the orders to stop the German armoured attack against Dunkirk.

  6. Even under the conditions created by Munich policy the might of the Soviet Union continued to operate and prepare the future victory over German Fascism.

  7. Dublin, Feb.6 – A powerful protest movement, involving wide sections of the Irish people, has developed against the arrival of a Dutch Naval Air Squadron at Eglinton training base, in County Derry, Northern Ireland.

  8. When they approached the Thames it was day, and on the bridge they beheld the full blaze of morning sunlight in the direction of St. Paul’s. Near Covent Garden he put her into a cab and they parted.

  9. The North sea separates Great Britain from Germany and the Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway and Sweden), while the English Channel which is also known as La Manche, lies between England on the one hand, and France, Belgium and Holland on the other.

  10. You young folks have never seen the old times, and Waterloo is to you no more than Agincourt, and George IV than Sardanapalus.

  11. The capital of the USA is Washington, situated in the District of Columbia (Washington D.C.)

  12. Prague 1947 and Budapest 1949 have established a tradition for the holding of a World Youth Festival every two years.

  13. The Popular Front of Italy got eight million votes in the general election which was quite unexpected for Fleet Street.

  14. Never will the armies now being dreamed up in the White House and in the Pentagon “reach Moscow”, Hoover warns, heartbroken.

  15. Under the closest British guidance and supervision, a conference dominated by Right-wing Nigerian politicians has now almost completed the draft of a new Constitution for Nigeria. Similar in form to the new Gold Coast Constitution which has led to widespread protest and clashes with the police, the Nigerian document will be presented to the Legislative Council in March. As at present, every decision taken by Nigerian leaders would be subject to the veto of the Governor, and thus of Whitehall.

  16. Mr. Louis Johnson, the former US Secretary of Defense, tried to scare the American and other peoples by talking of the possibility of another Pearl Harbour attack at four o’clock in the morning.


Литература к семинару


    1. Комиссаров В.Н., Рецкер Я.И., Тархов В.И. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский. М., 1960. С.23-32,111-126.

    2. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода. С.-Пб., 2003. С63-126.

    3. Романова С.П. Коралова А.Л. Пособие по переводу с английского на русский. М., 2004. С.20-26, 32-36.


Практическое занятие 2(3 ч.)

Приемы создания контекстуальных замен(лексико-семантические трансформации).

Цель: Ознакомить с лексико-семантическими трансформациями, практиковать употребление их при переводе

Контрольные вопросы

  1. В чем сущность приема конкретизации понятия при переводе?

  2. Что называется антонимическим соответствием?

  3. Какими изменениями формы сопровождается применение приема антонимического перевода.

  4. Какие причины вызывают необходимость использования антонимического перевода?

  5. Как обычно переводятся союзы until, unless, употребленные с отрицанием?



Задания для аудиторной работы

    1. Рассмотрите самостоятельно следующие вопросы:

а) Логическое развитие в переводе [3; 56]

б) Целостное преобразование [3;61]


    1. Казакова Т.А. Практические основы перевода.

  1. Упр.1, с.114-115.




    1. В каждой из предлагаемых ниже фраз есть слово или словосочетание, нуждающееся либо в расширении, либо в сужении значения. Опираясь на внутрифразовый контекст, переведите их, пользуясь приемом конкретизации или генерализации.[3;70]

  1. His hands were short and broad.

  2. There was a similar campaign about 10 years ago.

  3. From her corner she could see every inch of the big room.

  4. It turned my limbs leaden.

  5. Our challenge now is to promote ideas of freedom.

  6. The lady’s hat was an elaborate affair of ribbons and feathers.

  7. Martin’s performance at the exam was, unfortunately, far from perfect.

  8. It was perfectly clear to me that my previous pattern of life was gone for ever.

  9. If you make up your mind to visit Madrid I can be of some help to you. I’ve got a nice little place there and I’m sure you’ll find it very comfortable.

  10. All the houses along the seafront promenade had black, blank windows, for this was a summer place, in February it was only half alive.

  11. She had been along in perfect health when she stepped off the kerb in Piccadilly and the car had killed her.

  12. Lames looked furtively at Irene, and across from her to Soames. “He’s fond of her, I know,” he thought. “Look at the way he’s always giving her things”.




    1. Переведите следующие предложения, используя прием смысловой конкретизации при переводе выделенных слов и словосочетаний. [1;84]

  1. Already the post-war reactionary offensive of Yankee imperialism is beginning to get the inevitable answer from the Latin American peoples.

  2. “Don’t look so smug about it”, the second doctor said bitterly. “It’s sweet for you to see my patients go wrong and yours recover”.

  3. If father were to loose his job, which could quite easily have happened, we had nothing to fall back upon.

  4. Much water (to use a euphuism) has flowed along the Fleet Ditch during the past two hundred years, and its culvert may need attending to.

  5. It was some time before I came to suspect that all was not as it appeared to be in our little world.

  6. My feelings then would have been even stronger had I known that Karl Stock was to be burnt in the incinerators of Majdanek.

  7. Alerts were followed by periods of unease.



    1. Не переводя всего предложения, определите, каким словом вы перевели бы существительное men, которое требует конкретизации.

  1. Before he left, Columbus also told his men to build a fort and moat to impress the Indians.

  2. The news trickled back that General Lee had issued orders that no private property in Pennsylvania should be touched, that looting world be punished by death… Not turn the men loose in the rich storehouses of the prosperous state?

  3. Scarlett was indignant that he had read her mind She Liked to believe herself a mystery to men, but she knew Rhett thought her as transparent as glass.

  4. Nowadays the only news was that which passed from mouth to mouth. Short of paper, short of ink, short of men, the newspapers had suspended publications after the siege began, and the wildest rumors appeared from nowhere and swept through the town.

  5. The Vikings began their expeditions from the Scandinavian countries about 800 A.D. and went on until about 1000 A.D. While trading, looting and conquering, these tall, blond, blue-eyed men found their way to the British Isles, the Frankish empire and the Mediterranean, to the Baltic lands, Russia, Byzantium, Iceland, Greenland and America.




    1. ^ Переведите следующие предложения, используя прием антонимического перевода. Укажите какими причинами вызвана необходимость применения антонимического соответствия.[1;85]

  1. Soames, with his set lips and his square chin, was not unlike a bulldog.

  2. He…had an old mother…whom he never disobeyed.

  3. “She was never well”, said Peggoty, “for a long tome”.

  4. Although British Ally is now dead and is probably only dimly remembered … the inner history of the paper has direct bearing events today.

  5. I had though that Bulmer’s sharp-tongued, jealous wife had cured him of his …peculiarity, but it seems old habits die hard.

  6. Britain’s adherence to the North Atlantic war alliance…increases the danger of war. It increases the insecurity of Britain.

  7. No free labour will be hired on this concentration camp project.

  8. He was not unfriendly to a particular type of a prisoner.

  9. I don’t dislike you, Mr Mont, but Fleur is everything to me.

  10. Rank-and-file trade unionists are loyal to the interests of working class, but the Right-wing Labour leaders are not.

  11. But my mind did not run so much on this as might be supposed.

  12. I was brought up in middle-class environment ignorant of much of the stern reality of life.

  13. But I found that throughout the betrayed land people knew the truth and were bitterly blaming their leaders for their lack of response to the Russian offer.




    1. В данном упражнении антонимический перевод является предпочтительным или единственно возможным. Перед тем как переводить следующие предложения, постарайтесь определить, в каких случаях у вас есть возможность выбора из двух или более вариантов, а в каких нормы русского языка диктуют единственный вариант перевода[3;73]:

  1. He keeps the fortune from falling into the hands of greedy relatives.

  2. “Macon, are you awake?”

  3. The ambulance was a long time coming.

  4. He stayed out of the sun during the middle part of the day.

  5. Alexander fought to hold a grin back.

  6. Any objection to roast chicken?” Jenny asked.

  7. The elder boys were still up, sitting around the TV.

  8. He followed her into a large department store, careful to remain out of sight.

  9. She keeps this room locked. The maids have been ordered to keep out.

  10. This was a mystery beyond the inspector’s power to solve.

  11. He entered the suite, trying to keep his knees from trembling. He almost blurted out, “Where’s the emerald?”

  12. (In the Zoo) “Don’t the animal hate being locked up, Papa?” the boy asked.

  13. Alice shrieked and clapped her hands to her ears to shut out the sound she had imagined.

  14. He left the form on the counter and walked out very quickly keeping a hand in his pocket to silence his keys.




    1. Переведите следующие предложения. Укажите, как передаются значения союзов unless, until [1;87].

  1. She never told until afterward how painful that duty was.

  2. I may mention here what I did not discover until afterwards…

  3. Postmasters shall not rent any part of any room or store…until a report has been made to the Division of Post Office Quarters, and authority received for such occupancy.

  4. No person shall be eligible for appointment as postmaster in the continental United States unless he is a citizen of the United States on July 30, 1947.

  5. Confidential papers should not be released from the post office unless authorized by the Department.

  6. I never returned from these trips to the war areas during the early days of conflict without marveling at the strength that lay in the rank-and-file members of Soviet Society.

  7. She had remained with him through his adversity, and had not left him until after his success.




    1. Зад.6,с.74 [3]

Практическое занятие 3(4 ч.)

Грамматические трансформации

Цель: ознакомить с грамматическими трансформациями, практиковать их употребление при переводе.

Задания для аудиторной работы

Рассмотрите самостоятельно следующие вопросы:

  1. Перевод каузативных конструкций [3;91]

  2. Перевод абсолютных конструкций [3;93]

  3. Перевод инфинитива [3;98] [5;91]

  4. Перевод пассивной конструкции [4;50]

Задание № 1

Переведите следующие предложения. При переводе выделенных слов замените части речи: [3; 102]

1. Most of the people I spoke to were unhelpful.

2. What is happening in New York will happen nationally.

3. At the age of eighteen, George earned an honest living.

4. The ship was listing badly but still kept afloat.

5. Uncharacteristically, he came over and put his arms around his father and hugged him.

6. She answered questions in monosyllables.

7. After the excitement, she slept heavily and dreamlessly.

8. He spoke so rapidly that I had difficulty understanding him.

9. At the Commonwealth conference in Kuala Lumpur, Mrs. Thatcher was predictably unrepentant.

10. People who were central to the civil-rights movement came out in support of the minority groups.

11. He asked me if I lived locally, what my job was and whether he could count on my support.

12. Macon had his pick of seats: window, nonsmoking.

13. There's going to be a thorough investigation into this and the FBI will be involved because we're a federally insured bank.

14. All banks measure profit in terms of earnings per share. Such earnings are widely studied by shareholders, investors and the business community nationally and internationally.

Задание № 2

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на суще­ствительные, образованные с помощью суффикса -ег: [3;102]

1. The boy was panting. It was quite a strain for him, always a mouth-breather, to have reached the sixth floor.

2. "I hope you won't mind having dinner in the kitchen," Ann said. "Certainly, not. We're a generation of kitchen-eaters," he answered.

3. These cacti, though slow-growers, make an ideal starting point for the novice.

4. "Certainly," she said, trying to frown — but she was clearly not a frowner.

5. As expected, the Socialists were easy winners in the first round of the elections.

6. Heery burst out laughing. In the great bustle of the last days I had forgotten what a good laugher he was.

7. The reaction of the public was most enthusiastic. Alfred, however, was among the non-responders.

8. Austin was a handsome ageing play-boy type, flamboyant dresser with styled iron-grey hair.

9. Rare and unusual plants — as long as they are also attractive — are doubly fascinating to the keen grower.

10. Above all else, President Bush is a firm believer in the value of personal diplomacy.

11. "You can use my library," Burton said. Andrew was no wobbler. He got up from the chair and came up to the shelves where Burton kept his most precious books on architecture.

12. Even so, the gainers from the liberal economic policies of Mr. Ghandi's early years in power far outnumber the losers.

13. An anonymous telephone caller to a newspaper claimed to have carried out the attack.

14. Mother insisted that we should remove the blue rug from the dining room. "It's a mistake to have a rug where people are eating. It's nothing but crumb catcher," she said.

15. "By the way," Robert said, "the car is not a heavy drinker, so the journey won't turn into a costly affair."

16. Young Jolyon was a good listener; it was his great quality.

Задание № 3

Переведите следующие предложения. Там, где это возможно, пе­реведите с помощью других частей речи прилагательные, образо­ванные с использованием суффикса -аblе:[3;103]

1. Western politicians were quick to conclude that the process is unstoppable.

2. To make this house livable one has to put a lot of work into it.

3. Alfa Romeo cars all have their devotees and are affordable at £7,000.

4. You will find your new boss quite an approachable person.

5. McLeash had no professional respect for the journalists who tried to cater to the most indiscriminating readers, the easily persuadable, who believe that what they see in print is true.

6. "Oh, dear," thought Scarlett, looking first at herself in the mirror and then at Rhett's unreadable face.

7.1 can do anything I choose, anything at all, for now I am answerable only to myself.

8. Apart from seismic activity — which is itself is detectable — there are several reliable precursors of earthquake, among them rodon gas emissions, patterns of foreshocks and behaviour an animals.

9. No matter how powerful the Prime Minister (Mrs. Thatcher) might be, she is still accountable to Parliament.

10. Even today, 25 years later, the image is inescapable.
Задание № 4

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения:[4;94]

1. Суффикс -еr

1. The Prime Minister refused to be drawn yesterday into saying what he would do if his attempt to join the Common Market were to fail Questioners at his press conference wanted to pin him down (The Guardian, 1964)

2. The West German ambassador in charge of negotiations around the non-proliferation treaty is a determined non-signer (M S., 1969)

3. "Have you ever seen Mother cry, Tom?" "No, not that I can remember. No, she's not a crier." "Well, she cried. Not much, but a lot for her." (J Steinbeck, East of Eden)

4. Various schemes have been put forward to outlaw taxi gratuities, but fleet owners are certain that without tips the quality of service would go down. The taxi drivers themselves respond to the non-tipper with a selection of crisp, four letter, Anglo-Saxon words (The L. N., 1968)

5 It was not until he encountered an Arab villager who told him of a large mound near a remote village that Botta hired two diggers and sent them to the spot with instructions to see what they could uncover (J Elder, Prophets, Idols and Diggers)

6. 1 had sized up the Taylor woman as a package-leaver as soon as she joined us (D du Maurier The Flight of the Falcon)

7. According to a report circulating among UN agencies what Western Europe is draining from its former colonies is only about equal to what Europe is losing to the United States, which is the net gainer from the brain drain. (The N. Y. T., 1966)

8. The boys ate quickly and quietly, wolfed their food. Aron said, "Will you excuse us, Father?" Adam nodded, and the two boys went quickly out. Samuel looked after them: "They seem older than eleven," he said. "I seem to remember that at eleven my brood were howlers and screamers and runners in circles. These seem like grown men." (J. Steinbeck, East of Eden)

9. To be a good comedian you have to be a friend to the audience as well as an entertainer. (M. S., 1968)

10. A proposal made by a Tory ought to make it a non-run­ner for Labour. (D. W., 1965)

11. A student was injured and four arrested when police with dogs broke up a demonstration of protesters on the University College of Rhodesia campus today, (M. S., 1970)

12. Stone Thrower in Court

A man who threw a stone through a window of 10, Downing Street on Sunday because of British "failure to bring about civil rights in Northern Ireland," was given a two-month suspended sentence at Bow Street yester­day. (M. S., 1970)

13. On the two previous mornings Newman had come to breakfast late; and I didn't fancy that at any time he was an early riser. (A. Christie, The Thirteen Problems)

14. "What are you in for?" he asked in a low voice. "Murder," said John Lexman laconically. He had answered the question before and had noticed with a little amusement the look of respect which came into the eyes of the questioner. (E. Wallace, The Clue of the Twisted Candle)

15. Biggest foreign exhibitor at Expo 70, the world fair in Osaka, was the Soviet Union. (M. S., 1971)

16. The Mahlerian cult has now established itself firmly upon the concert life of Great Britain. Gigantic orches­tras and choirs are financially justified as Mahler's sym­phonies are now guaranteed hall-fillers. (M. S., 1969)

17. American military draft evaders are given asylum by Sweden defying the US Government displeasure (L. M,, 1970)

^ 2. Cyффикс -able

1. The political foundation of the Soviet society is the unbreakable alliance of the working class with the peas­antry, which is growing day by day due to the policy and practical measures adopted by the Communist Party in promoting both industry and agriculture. (N, A., 1971)

2. I managed to smile at him. How had 1 ever thought Wayne Martin a harsh, unreachable man? There was nothing but kindness in him now. (Ph. A. Whitney, Silverhill)

3. "War bread"

— Pain de guerre... Oh, the delicious rolls of the garret days! As for tobacco, it was all but unfindable. (P.I a Mure, Clair de Lune)

4. But I'm afraid we should all be mildly surprised if your ingenious friend can really persuade us that we can afford the unaffordable (C. P. Snow, Corridors of Power)

5. If cannabis had been absolutely prohibited 30 or 35 years ago in North Africa, the drug problem would now be manageable. (M. S., 1969)

6. The songs of the film, old and new, are hummable, and the setting is colourful enough. (M. S., 1967)

7. London Conversation is an interesting and listenable record. (M. S., 1967)

8. But the Tories are doing nothing to prevent avoidable tragedies — deaths due to inadequate heating and food— happening this winter. (D. W., 1963)

9. Through the glasses it was possible to see a series of ridges running laterally across the faces of others; they were quite climbable.

The men below had lights to illuminate the scalable rock. (L. Davidson, The Menorah Men)

10. The continued rise in living costs means that the average worker is gaining no ground in his race against higher prices, the magazine Business Week comments. Real, spendable earnings are not only slightly lower than a year ago; they are actually no higher than they were at the end of the 1964. (M. S., 1968)

11. After the great weight of put-downable books by Generals on how they won the war, here is an un-put-downableone about some of the men who helped them do it (The Spectator, 1960)

12 Attractive plastics pottery is now available, while dis­posable paper plates are becoming the thing at many parties. This may be paralleled by development of paper clothes, attractive but disposable and cheap (D W , 1963)

Задание № 5

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая особое внимание на каузативные конструкции:[3;105]

1. Liza is a good typist but this time she has been hurried into making mistakes.

2. The owner of the restaurant bowed us in when we arrived.

3. Don't rush me into doing things that are contrary to my convictions.

4. If the enemy completely surrounds the town, it will not be long before they starve the townspeople into surrender.

5. "We, journalists," he said, "were brainwashed into believing that the Russians were not to be trusted."

6. We said grace, drank a toast to the hostess and the host, and ate ourselves into a proper insensibility.

7. She laughed the tension out of her voice and touched his hand.

8. The townspeople know that O'Brien has once bought his way out of the electric chair, so they have every reason to question the jury's objectivity this time.

9. If the police can't force the criminals out of their hiding place by any other means, they can always starve them out.

10. Frankly speaking, Mrs. Ackroyd was a dipsomaniac. She succeeded in drinking herself into her grave four years after her marriage.

Задание № 6

Переведите следующие предложения. Постарайтесь воспользоваться всеми знакомыми вам приемами перевода абсолютной конструк­ции:[3;105]

1. A little aloof lay a carriage dog, muzzle on paws, patiently waiting for the boys to go home.

2. Mr. MacVeagh mused silently, his eyes on the fire.

3. Alien Strand strode into the fragrant green hush of Central Park, the rumble of Fifth Avenue diminishing behind him.

4. "You don't suppose any of us would stay in college, with a war going on, do you?" he said.

5. She turned her head away and looked out to sea, her ears full of the sentimental music.

6. He had slept away the afternoon, his dreams confused and menacing.

^ 7. There being no time like the present, I resolved to begin the experiment at once.

8. The trade union says 600 more police officers are necessary immediately, with more next year.

9. Macon sped ahead, with his hands relaxed on the wheel.

10. With her away, Lieutenant Darkin had made it a point to check the house from time to time.

11. Her heart racing, she leaned from the window, her ear cocked to the far-off roaring, trying to discover from which direction it came.

12. Then she started down the road toward Tara, the heavy basket cutting into her flesh.

13. ...and Ashley bent and touched her cheek with cold lips, his face drawn and taut.
Задание № 7

Внимательно вчитайтесь в следующие предложения и определите, в какой синтаксической функции употреблены выделенные инфи­нитивы (обстоятельства цели, последующего действия или опреде­ления). Переведите предложения на русский язык:[3;106]

1. That night there was a storm and I woke to hear the rain lashing the window-panes.

2. The door swung open to reveal a large room luxuriously furnished.

3. Extraordinary measures to deal with the situation have been debated.

4. He had broken into the house and opened the safe, only to find it empty.

5.1 remember that every morning Mother was up before dawn to get the fire lit in the kitchen.

6. Eugene, her cousin, when he attained the age of seventeen, left for the colonies never to be heard of again.

7. The old gardener had finished his morning job and came with a little basket to feed the doves.

8. Like a weakening swimmer I edged to the right into a pleasant street only to be stopped by a policeman, who informed me that trucks were not permitted there.

9. Modern professional astronomers rarely look through their telescopes. They prefer working with electronic devices, recording images or computer data to be scrutinized later in the laboratory.

10. The European Community's interior ministers are meeting early next week in Brussels to discuss drastic measures to be taken against European terrorism.

11. Switzerland, with few natural resources, no ports, and no standing army, has made herself an international power to reckon with by her shrewd management of her own and other people's money.
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