Education in Russia
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Introduction. …………… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ….. … 3
1. Development of Russian Education System in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.1. Humanistic character of modern formation …………………………..……... 5
1.2. Reform of education in Russia the beginnings of XXI century …..………… 7
1.3. Results of a state policy in sphere of education during last decades ………... 8
2. Education System in Russian Federation ………………………………………………... 9
2.1. Continuous education ……………………………………………………….. 9
2.2. Characteristic of education system in Russia ………………………………. 11
2.2.1. Requirements and educational organizations …………………………... 11
2.2.2. Preschool educational establishments and schools …………………….. 14
2.2.3. Middle professional education …………………………………………. 16
2.2.4. High school ……………………………………………………………... 17
Private and alternative educational establishments …………………….. 18
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Literature …………………………………………………………………………………. 21
Nowadays the question of surviving in new social-economical conditions becomes one of the most important. Education must prepare a modern man for the reality of life. Education system in any country should help to solve the main problems of social, economical and cultural development of human society. That’s why the role of school as a basic part of education and its ability to be flexible is of great importance.
Unfortunately the attempts to copy American experience in teaching without understanding all its advantages and disadvantages has given us the results that we did not intend to get. At the same time many Russian people brought up according to the humanist principles that are traditional for Russian culture realized this mistake and began paying more attention to the very personality of students and to the latest psychological researches.
In fact the person is inquisitive by the nature, and the satisfaction of information famine for a usual person is almost the same as the need for food. Therefore really talented teacher aspires to wake and fix this thirst for knowledge, shows the pupils, how it is possible to receive satisfaction in the process of knowledge. However the teacher who will set such a problem, will inevitably collide with a number of difficulties, especially if he works at an ordinary school. Therefore in a private school where as everywhere in conditions of the market approach, " all is made for the client ", such people find way to realize their ideas. In fact if children find being at school pleasant their parents, understanding, that it is not vain, will spend the money easier.
The history of humanity testifies, that education and society are inseparable. All global problems (economic, social, political, culturological, demographic, ecological, etc.), with which the society collides, anyhow have influence on the sphere of formation and education. For example, in connection to the economic difficulties experienced by many countries including the Russian Federation, state financing of the education system decreases that conducts to insufficient quality of material equipment of teaching and educational establishments, to decrease in quality of preparation of pedagogical staff. The ecological conditions on the planet have also destroying influence on health of a person since the very birth. As a result the abilities to training are reduced; there is the need for creation of educational establishments of correctional, improving character. During wars, ethnic conflicts that take place in many countries, problems of formation were put off to the background; in front of the threat of danger of death the possibility of going to school or a kindergarten catastrophically loses its importance.
But, on the other hand, education defines many aspects of a person’s life in a society. Scientists emphasize social value of education as an important transformation force of the society. It is known, that for an output from the crisis experienced now by the world civilization, radical changes in consciousness, behaviour of people are necessary. To transform the private world of an individual on the basis of humanistic ideals, purposefully to form moral qualities, to rise a level of culture and vocational training of the person are the functions of modern education. The social role of education consists of the opportunity to influence to the development of tendencies in the society, to prepare the next generation for the solving of global or local problems of the present, to learn them to predict it and if it is required to warn their consequences.
For each person education more or less expresses personal values. The process of getting education which in the highly developed countries takes a quarter of a vital way of the modern person, but at the same time it makes his life substantial and spiritualized, opens his various emotions, satisfies needs for knowledge, dialogue, self-affirmation. While a person gets education all the potential abilities of the person develop his self-realization is carried out, his image is formed. With the help of formation the person adapts for life in the society, acquires knowledge and skills necessary for this.
Development of Russian Education System in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries
Russian natural-science education is estimated very highly and is considered to be one of the best in the world. The benefit of it can be seen in the brilliant results of the Russian schoolboys on the international Olympiads, and also in the high level of preparation of the Russian employees working at foreign universities or firms, in comparison with the western colleagues. Nevertheless, this point of view has also opponents. They refer to a low level of mass literacy of the Russian population, especially rural, on low erudition of inhabitants of many small cities situated far from capital mega cities. However there are all bases in the estimation of scientific-educational potential of this or that country to conduct comparison by the best, most educated part of the population.
The changes in social and economic sphere of a public life have put many countries of the world, including Russia, before the necessity of reforming educational system. Reforms of education, becoming a part of social policy of the modern states, are directed to:
- Updating of all parts of the system from preschool establishments up to universities;
- Perfection of the maintenance, methods and means of teaching and educational work;
- Improvement of preparation and improvement of professional skill of the pedagogical staff.
These ideas are put in the basis of state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of humanistic education. They found reflection in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993), the Law of the Russian Federation «About education» (1992). In documents it is declared, that education should be carried out in interests of person, society and state. It is outlined, that, moving on the way of humanization of society, it is possible to hope, that education will become one of the most important needs of the person and favorable conditions for realization of this need, for development of the general and professional culture of the person will be created. The main principles of the state policy in the field of education in Russia are humanistic character of formation, priority of universal values, lives and health of the person, freedom of development of the person; protection of national cultures, cultural traditions of peoples of Russia; general availability, etc.
It is possible, that the given estimations are too much subjective, but thus, it is obvious, that Russian education system is still too theoretical and poorly aimed at practical application. It is insufficient for the satisfaction of the need of flexible education in modern conditions.
According to the Concept of modernization Russian Formations till 2010, approved by the government on 25 October 2001, education is supposed to be reformed in two stages:
1. At the first stage (2001-2003) it was necessary in to restore the responsibility of the state in the sphere of education, with an output on minimal necessary budgetary specifications. The decision of socially significant problems and modernization of education was developed and occurs in a context of the general process of reforming of the various parties of a life, in close interaction with other reforms, simultaneously being for them a source of maintenance necessary personnel resource.
At the second stage (2004-2005) it is necessary to realize the measures that passed experimental check in particular at the first stage and after the estimation of results to introduce new models of education, its organization and financings. At the second stage the expansion of resource maintenance will be lead.
In 2006-2010 the first results of modernization of formation should be designated such as real improvement of quality of the general and vocational training and decrease in social intensity in a society.
On the basis of increase of the salary of workers in the sphere of education the growth of social status and improvement of qualitative structure will be provided.
Such a reform is necessary for Russia education. At existing system it is impossible to expect essential increasing of the human capital, which basically defines prospects of development of all economy. Scientists of the world have already come to a conclusion, that the most important resource of economy is the human one, possession, which in scales of the country defines its position in the world.
According to the statistic data the population of 2002, there’re more than 109,4 million persons in Russia in the age of 15 years have basic general and is higher education that makes 90,2 % of this age group. Since 1989 the number of persons with such educational level has increased for 18,3 million or on 20 %. Thus 76,5 % of the group of the population in the age of 15 years have average (full) general education, and 59 % have vocational training. In total since 1989 to 2002 the number of specialists with higher education has increased up to 6,6 million. The number of the persons having post-grade education (finished postgraduate study, doctoral studies, Internship) and of the persons having secondary education has also increased for 5 % (up to 1 million).
By the beginning of 2002 the quantity of students in the country has grown in comparison with 1990 in 2,1 times that makes 5,95 million person. Similar tendencies of growth of number were observed in higher educational institutions (in 2 times).
Besides the quantitative estimations it is necessary to accept attention quality standards of education system. So, it is obvious that the level of knowledge and skills, which are received by pupils, are as high as it’s demanded.
However, despite of the mentioned above tendencies, in Russia a significant part of graduates don’t work on their specialties. The mentioned above processes of employment of the population with higher education, a rate of unemployment on the given category for last 10 years practically has not changed. The basic growth of unemployment falls at the population with the average general education.
Modern Education System of Russian Federation
The question whether it is possible to be taught, receive formation once for all life, is not new for the modern society. The idea of continuous (lifelong) training has arisen in the remote past, but humanity began to test sharp necessity for its realization in the end of XX century. It shows the dynamism of social and economic and spiritual development of the modern society. To correspond to requirements of promptly varying society, the person should fill up, expand, specify constantly luggage of knowledge, raise his general and professional culture, and develop the creative potential.
In 80th in documents of the international organizations (the UNESCO, the Roman club, etc.) studying the conditions and prospects of development of world education system the concept of continuous formation was issued. The essence of the concept consists of the idea of "a training society”, lifelong education, a person satisfying his needs in continuous perfection and self-realization.
Originally the idea of continuous formation was developed as a problem of education of adults. Thus the theses of modern psychology that development of the person is not limited to frameworks of the childhood were taken into account. It was supposed, that continuous formation will facilitate for the person change of social roles during the different periods of a life, will support and improve the quality of an individual and collective life by personal, social and professional development. In the modern concept continuous formation is considered as the constant form of all human life since the early age.
Continuous education is the activity of the person focused on purchase of knowledge, development of all parties and abilities of his person, including formation of skill to study and preparation for execution of various social and professional duties, and also for participation in social development as in scale of the country, and of the world.
Main principles of continuous formation can be formulated as follows:
- Orientation of educational system to the person, to his individual and base needs;
- Wide democratism of educational system, availability, openness of any step and form of education to everyone in spite of the person’s sex, social status, nationality, physical condition, etc.;
- Fast reaction of educational system to features of interests of various categories of the population, and also styles and rates of training;
- Development of various forms of the educational services allowing to give education in a way convenient for people, in necessary volume, in a suitable place, at any time;
- Unity of formal and informal kinds (self-supporting rates, circles, clubs on interests, etc.) of education, creation of "an educational field” which will transform the society into "training";
- Use of electronic technology with a view of maintenance of reception with people getting education at any stage of their vital way.
Now the system of continuous formation, which should provide interaction of all factors of formation of the person, is almost fulfilled. Nowadays continuous education becomes a mass movement in which study, work, and leisure of people are integrated.
2.2.1. Requirements and educational organizations
Modern and future employers are interested in such worker who is allocated the following qualities:
- To think independently and to solve various problems (i.e. to apply the received knowledge to their decision);
- To possess creative thinking;
- To possess the rich lexicon based on deep understanding of humanitarian knowledge.
Thus, the graduate of modern school who will live and work in the next millennium, in a postindustrial should possess the certain qualities of the person:
- Flexibly to adapt in varying vital situations, to be able to acquire independently knowledge necessary for it, to be able to put them into practice for the decision of various arising problems;
- To think independently and critically, to be able to see problems arising in reality and, using modern technologies to search for ways of their rational decision; precisely to realize, where and how the knowledge got by him can be applied in the validity surrounding it; to be capable to generate new ideas, to think creatively;
- To work competently with the information (to be able to collect the facts that are necessary for the decision of the certain problem, to analyze them, to put forward hypotheses of the decision of problems, to do necessary generalizations, comparisons to similar or alternative variants of the decision, to establish statistical regularities, to draw the argued conclusions, to apply the received conclusions to revealing and decisions of new problems);
- To be sociable, contact in various social groups, to be able to work together in different areas, in various situations, to find ways to prevent or be able to leave any disputed situations;
- To work independently on the development of his own morals, intelligence, a cultural level.
Thus, the main, strategic direction of development of education system is in the decision of a problem of person-orientated education, such an education in which the pupil, the student would be in the center of attention of the teacher and the psychologist. Such an education system reflects the humanistic direction in philosophy, psychologies and pedagogic.
Modern Russian formation is a continuous system of consecutive steps of training, on each of which the state, municipal educational establishments of different types and kinds operate. The educational system unites different educational organizations and includes:
- General educational;
- Establishments for children-orphans and children who have stayed without care of parents;
- Professional (initial, average special, higher, etc.) education;
Establishments of additional formation;
Other establishments, rendering educational services.
Educational establishments can be paid and free-of-charge, commercial and noncommercial. It gives the right to come to the agreements among themselves, to be united in teaching and educational complexes (a kindergarten - an elementary school, lyceum – college or a university) and teaching research-and-production associations with participation of scientific, industrial and other establishments and the organizations.
Activity of the state, municipal educational establishments is under construction on the basis of the typical positions authorized by the Government of the Russian Federation, about corresponding types and kinds of educational establishments. On the basis of typical positions charters of educational establishments are developed.
The Russian preschool educational establishments are guided in the activity by the regulations about preschool educational establishment accepted in 1995. According to this position preschool establishments’ aim is to solve a complex of problems, such as:
· to carry out protection of a life and health of children;
· to provide their intellectual, personal and physical development;
· to attach to universal values;
· to cooperate with family in interests of high-grade development of the child.
Modern preschool establishments are characterized by multi-functionality, different kinds of educational organizations, and freedom in choice of priority direction of teaching and educational process, use of educational programs.
According to typical position different kinds of preschool establishments function:
- A kindergarten;
- A kindergarten with priority realization of one or several directions of teaching children (intellectual, art-aesthetic, physical, etc.);
- A kindergarten of a compensating kind with priority realization of qualifying correction of deviations in physical and mental development of pupils;
- A kindergarten of supervision and improvement with priority realization of sanitary-and-hygienic, preventive and improving actions and procedures;
- A kindergarten of the combined kind (into its structure general teaching, compensating and improving groups in a different combination can be included);
- The center of a child - a kindergarten with realization of physical and mental correction of all children.
It is necessary to note, that in the system of modern preschool establishments there is an insignificant number of the day nursery. The matter is that the conditions of education in a day nursery caused natural criticism on some of teachers, psychologists, the doctors considering the small child leaving his family characterized by heavy loading for his imperfect mentality. The analysis of parameters of development of children of early age, grown-up in a family, testifies, that half of them have deviations in physical health. Now scientific researches are conducted with the purpose of development of model of family-public education of children of early age in conditions of preschool establishment and family. Searching of new technologies of education of children of preschool age is carried out. In preschool establishments groups with a flexible operating mode are created. Therefore, first of all it is necessary to reconsider and develop:
• the general approaches to the organization of educational process;
• the general principles of construction of programs and techniques;
• the general principles of selection and a professional training.
The central part of an education system in the Russian Federation is the general secondary education which is provided with average comprehensive schools, schools with the profound studying separate subjects, grammar schools, licea, evening schools, educational establishments such as the boarding schools, special schools for children with deviations in physical and mental development, out-of-school educational establishments (children's musical and art schools, schools of arts, choral and choreographic studios, folklore ensembles, sports schools, etc.). At school pupils can study for 9 or 11 years.
The main tasks of general educational establishments are to create favorable conditions for intellectual, moral, emotional and physical development of the person; to promote development of scientific outlook; to provide development of system of knowledge of the nature, a society, the person, his work by pupils themselves; to generate receptions of independent activity.
According to the Law of the Russian Federation «About education» the treatment of traditionally existing professional and average special formation is new. Now these both links are considered accordingly as initial and average vocational training. Initial vocational training has the purpose to prepare, as a rule, on the basis of the general education (the basic school), qualified employees on all basic directions of socially useful activity. It can be received in technical training colleges and other types of educational institutions of the given level.
Middle professional education is focused on preparation according to the basis of the basic general, average (full) general or initial professional training including. Middle professional training can be received in a special educational institution (school, college) or in a higher educational institution at the first step of the higher professional education.
The higher school in Russia is the most dynamically developing part of the system of continuous education. It is includes the following kinds of educational institutions: universities (the centers of fundamental scientific researches and carry out preparation of experts on different structures), academies, institutes, conservatories, and the higher professional schools. Reforming of high school is based on introduction of multistage preparation of specialists, which is realized under the maintenance, and terms of training by successive general educational programs. After the end of training on each of steps the graduate receives the diploma, which allows to be engaged in professional work or to proceed to the following stage of formation. Such reorganization of higher education enables to satisfy needs of the country for experts of a different skill level.
Reforms in domestic higher education have begun in 1992 with acceptance of the federal Law "About education". It has legalized concepts that are new to us: a bachelor degree, magistracy, and multilevel system. But, not breaking developed system, it has kept and has included new and old, one-stage system
The levels (or steps) of higher education are determined s by the federal Law accepted in 1996 "About the higher professional and postgraduate education ". According to it the higher education includes three steps:
- The first step: the incomplete higher education with term of training 2 years;
- The second step: the basic higher education (bachelor degree) with term of training 4 years;
- The third step - with it business is more difficultly: the former model is attributed to " the diplomated expert " with term of preparation of 5 years and a new one is "master" with term of preparation of 6 years;
If a student wants to continue training on one of the programs of the third level he has a choice. If he decides to receive qualification " the diplomated expert " it is necessary to study 1 more year (under condition of concurrence of programs actually studying lasts 1 semester, further there is an independent work on the diploma). But the best way for the bachelor to improve his qualification is the magistracy. Studying there lasts 2 years and comes to the end after having writing a final master’s dissertation and, accordingly, getting of a degree of master.
To all educational establishments the right to render additional educational services is given. Additional services can be paid if they fall outside the limits of obligatory educational work with students that are defined by the curriculum of establishment and the program accepted for it as basic.
Since 1991 in Russia it is authorized to open private educational establishments. The Charter of the Russian association of non-state education was accepted. For reception of the sanction to opening of a private school (a kindergarten, university, etc.) which is given out in the Department of education, it is necessary to present a package of obligatory documents (the concept of training and education, the program and the charter of an institution, data on structure of pedagogical collective, the information on means for the maintenance of establishment). On an orientation and the maintenance of work private educational establishments can be divided into some types:
- Exclusive in which for very high payment high quality of formation is provided;
- For children who require special conditions for studying and individual development, badly adapt, hardly transfer a rigid regulation of their behaviour and activity, intensity of a rhythm of educational establishment; gifted children for whom are necessary a special atmosphere for development and the special program of training.
The new tendency in development of educational system of Russia became an occurrence of the so-called non-conventional teaching and educational establishments, alternative mass schools, kindergartens. For non-conventional teaching and educational establishments such attributes, as specificity of the purposes and maintenances of education are characteristic; freedom of choice of establishment of the certain orientation; relative administrative independence; a special atmosphere and moral climate, promoting the best adaptation of the child, his multilateral development.
Education influences all kinds of activity of the person. Having left school, one enters the institute, others go to technical school, and the third do not act anywhere. It shows the certain filter in a choice of the further trade of the person. Marking a special role of education in history of humanity, foreign and Russian scientists speak about discrepancy of a modern education system to objective requirements of a present stage of social development. This stage, which came in second half of XX century, is characterized by serious, dynamical changes in various social and economic spheres. Because of the interest to the person as to the factor of economic progress the question about humanistic educations became more important. Progress in science, techniques, cultural and information revolutions transform education into the necessary attribute of a daily life.
Today it is possible to allocate three basic tendencies in sphere of education in Russia: crisis of classical model, creation of the experimental schools, alternative forms of training, integration into world culture: democratization of school, an establishment of communication with the basic subjects of culture, creation of system of continuous formation, humanization and computerization of education. The third tendency is the restoration and development of traditions of Russian school.
Днепров Э.Д. Современная реформа образования в России: исторические предпосылки, теоретические основания, этапы подготовки и реализации. А. дисс. … канд. пед. наук. Спб., 1994.
Козлова С.А., Куликова Т.А. “Дошкольная педагогика”. Москва, “Academa” 2000г.
Журналы “Дошкольное воспитание” №№ 5, 12 1997г., № 2 1998г., № 7 2000г.
Журналы “Вестник образования” № 9 1998г., № 14 2000г.
Education in the USSR / Kusin N. P. Moscow, 1972.
Phillip С. Slechty. “Schools for the 21st Century”. San Francisco, 1990.
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