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Тест по экологии (на английском языке) - файл n1.doc


Тест по экологии (на английском языке)
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  1. The International Convention about wildlife protection is:

    • Convention on Biological Diversity

    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, CITES

    • Framework Convention on Climate Change

    • Convention on Ozone Layer Protection

    • Convention on Combat Desertification

  2. The International Convention on control of persistent organic pollutants is:

    • Stockholm convention

    • Montreal protocol

    • Convention on Biodiversity

    • Kyoto protocol

    • Convention on Combat Desertification

  3. The International basic document about greenhouse gases control is:

    • Kyoto protocol

    • Convention on Biodiversity

    • Montreal protocol

    • Stockholm convention on control of persistent organic pollutants

    • Convention on Combat Desertification

  4. The International basic document about ozone layer safety is:

    • Montreal protocol

    • Convention on Biodiversity

    • Kyoto protocol

    • Stockholm convention on control of persistent organic pollutants

    • Convention on Combat Desertification

  5. The basic national current document about environment safety of Kazakhstan

    • Concept of Ecological Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2004-2015

    • Concept of Transition to Sustainable Development of RK for 2007-2024

    • Convention on Biological Diversity

    • Montreal and Kyoto Protocols

    • Documents of Earth Summits in Rio-de-Janeiro and Johannesburg

  6. The basic nature protection law of Kazakhstan is:

    • Ecological Code

    • Convention on Combat Desertification

    • Water Code

    • On Special Protected Territories

    • Forest Code

  7. Sustainable use of natural resources means that they should be:

    • ensured the durability of them for future generations

    • all replaced by genetically modified products

    • distributed equally between nations

    • controlled by environmental legacy

    • used at a higher rate

  8. The primary body responsible for nature protection in Kazakhstan is:

    • Ministry of Environment Protection

    • Ministry of Agriculture

    • Ecological Union "Tabigat"

    • Society of Nature Protection

    • Ecological Movement "Nevada-Semipalatinsk"

  9. Term "Sustainable development" referred to ecology was first introduced at:

    • Earth Declaration on environment and development, Rio-de-Janeiro, 1992

    • Earth Summit Declaration on sustainable development, Johannesburg, 2002

    • Conference on global environment monitoring system, Stockholm, 1972

    • Conference on Ozone layer protection, Vienna, 1985

    • Conference on International Trade in Endangered Species, Washington, 1973

  10. The organic part of the soil that helps it to retain its moisture and nutrients is:

    • humus

    • detritus

    • organic fertilizers

    • topsoil

    • microorganisms

  11. Erosion is the loss of soil that results from:

    • abiotic factors

    • recycling

    • reforestation

    • contour plowing

    • proper grazing

  12. The natural reason of desertification is:

    • wind and water erosion

    • wood cutting and logging

    • over-pasture and road construction

    • mining industry and weapon tests

    • careless irrigation

  13. The main anthropogenic cause of desertification is:

    • excessive livestock grazing

    • uneven distribution of precipitation

    • high level of solar radiation

    • weak vegetation

    • lack of water supply

  14. Percentage of Kazakhstan’s soil that is undergone to desertification:

    • about 70%

    • about 30%

    • about 40%

    • about 50%

    • about 60%

  15. Indicate the name of Kazakhstan’s national park:

    • Altyn Emel

    • Kurgaldzhino

    • Alakol

    • Markakol

    • Naurzum

  16. Indicate the name of Kazakhstan’s reserve among the following list:

    • Aksu Jabagly

    • Altyn Emel

    • Ile-Alatau

    • Kokshetau

    • Burabay

  17. The numbers of plants and animals species included in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan are:

    • 404 and 309, respectively

    • 504 and 409, respectively

    • 304 and 209, respectively

    • 309 and 404, respectively

    • 204 and 109, respectively

  18. A special protected territory that is completely removed from an economical use is:

    • zapovednik

    • natural heritage

    • national park

    • biosphere reservate

    • botanical garden

  19. The main reason of Aral Sea catastrophe is:

    • careless use of water for irrigation

    • a natural disaster

    • land degradation caused by the Amu-Darya and Syr-Darya rivers flood

    • over-fishing

    • water pollution

  20. Ecological footprint (of a country or each person) is:

    • the average amount of productive land and ocean needed to supply with food, energy, water, housing, transportation, and waste disposal

    • the average for each country total value of all life quality indices

    • the quality of satisfaction with material and cultural human needs

    • the cost of all goods and services, produced in a country for a given year

    • the level of welfare of a country and its citizens

  21. The largest landscape zone of Kazakhstan is:

    • desert

    • forest

    • steppe

    • mountains

    • grassland

  22. External cost is:

    • harmful environmental or social cost borne by people not directly involved in buying or selling a product

    • the cost of environment friendly equipment and technologies

    • the cost of all goods and services, produced in a country per year

    • a measure of the total income of nation’s goods and services for a given year

    • earth’s resources and processes that sustain living organisms, including humans

  23. Industries can help to mitigate problems with water supply by:

    • recycling water during industrial operations

    • marsh drying

    • dam construction

    • releasing of farmer run-off

    • releasing of detergents to the domestic water system

  24. The main source of water pollution is:

    • petrochemical industry

    • hydroelectric power station

    • dam construction

    • fishing

    • thermal pollution

  25. Eutrophication of water is accompanied with:

    • intensive algae propagation

    • thermal water pollution

    • bioaccumulation of heavy metals

    • water erosion of soil

    • biomagnification

  26. The average renewal rate of rivers is:

    • about 12-17 days

    • about 17 years

    • about 24 hours

    • about 1400 years

    • nonrenewable

  27. The amount of the earth’s water supply available to land organisms is:

    • less than 1%

    • about 10%

    • more than 50%

    • about 5%

    • about 3%

  28. The world amount of fresh water is:

    • about 3%

    • about 1%

    • about 5%

    • about 10%

    • about 70%

  29. Land area of the Earth occupied by the rain forest is:

    • about 5%

    • about 25%

    • about 10%

    • about 50%

    • about 60%

  30. Land area of the Earth occupied by the forest (including tropical, moderate, boreal) is:

    • about 25%

    • about 5%

    • about 10%

    • about 50%

    • about 60%

  31. Industries contribute to habitat damage and destruction if they:

    • pollute water

    • use proper drainage system

    • produce freons

    • plant trees

    • organize natural parks and reserves

  32. The primary cause of species extinction is:

    • destruction of habitats

    • exposure to hazardous waste

    • biological magnification

    • acid rain

    • global warming

  33. Biological magnification is the process of:

    • increasing concentration of hazardous wastes through food chains

    • concentration of calcium deposits in the shells of dead organisms

    • algal bloom in a lake

    • accumulation of organics in the water reservoirs

    • biogeochemical cycles

  34. To prevent or reduce waste it should be done:

    • to use recycled materials whenever possible

    • to transport hazardous waste rather than treating on-site

    • to use over-packaging

    • to avoid using a catalytic converter

    • to release waste into the domestic sewage system

  35. The main physical reason of the photochemical smog is:

    • atmosphere temperature inversion

    • wind speed

    • mixing between air layers

    • atmosphere gas composition

    • precipitation

  36. The major component of photochemical smog is:

    • tropospheric ozone

    • sulfur dioxide

    • particulates

    • acid rain

    • carbon dioxide

  37. The primary reason of acid rain is:

    • burning fossil fuels

    • wood cutting

    • ozone layer depletion

    • marsh drainage

    • water thermal pollution

  38. Acid rain is harmful because it can:

    • dissolve nutrients and toxic metals in the soil

    • cause skin cancer in humans

    • cause land flooding

    • destroy ozone layer

    • increase earth temperature

  39. The pH of acid rain is:

    • below 5

    • below 6

    • below 7

    • below 8

    • below 9

  40. Acid rain occur as:

    • rain, snow, mist, fog, hail

    • only rain

    • acetic acid

    • lemon acid

    • carbonic acid

  41. The chemical compounds that can cause acid rain:

    • sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide

    • acetic and carbonic acid

    • methane and ammonia

    • carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    • ozone and particulates

  42. Loss of ozone has serious effects in people because ultra-violet radiation can cause:

    • skin cancer and eye damage

    • liver and kidneys damage

    • respiratory and nervous system damage

    • hepatitis and heart attack

    • anemia and diarrhea

  43. To stop ozone layer depletion it should be done:

    • to replace or recycle freons used in fridge and cooling systems

    • to stop wood cutting

    • to use solar power

    • to use a nuclear power

    • to use geothermal energy

  44. The heights of troposphere and stratosphere above the earth:

    • 0-15 km and 15-55 km respectively

    • 0-5 km and 5-50 km respectively

    • 0-10 and 10-80 km respectively

    • 0-12 and 12-100 km respectively

    • 0-20 and 20-200 km respectively

  45. The greenhouse gases are the following:

    • CO2, CFCs, CH4, NO, NO2, tropospheric ozone

    • stratospheric ozone

    • NH3, O2, noble gases

    • chlorine and fluorine

    • SO2, NO2, NO, CO

  46. Alternative sources of energy include:

    • sun, wind and waves

    • natural gas, peat and tides

    • oil, coal and geothermal energy

    • biomass, nuclear energy and oil

    • oil, coal, and natural gas

  47. To reduce greenhouse effect it should be done:

    • to use alternative sources of energy

    • to avoid sewage water

    • to burn the trees and rubbish

    • to cut off rain forest

    • to use fertilizers

  48. Distribution of gas concentrations in the atmosphere in descending order is:

    • nitrogen - oxygen - argon - carbon dioxide

    • carbon dioxide - oxygen - nitrogen -argon

    • oxygen - argon - nitrogen - carbon dioxide

    • argon - nitrogen-carbon dioxide - oxygen

    • oxygen - carbon dioxide- nitrogen - argon

  49. Scientists predict the global average temperature will rise by 2025 and by 2100 to:

    • 10C and 30C, correspondingly

    • 050C and 20C, correspondingly

    • 30C and 50C, correspondingly

    • 50C and 70C, correspondingly

    • 70C and 100C, correspondingly

  50. Factors that specifically damage genetic material of organisms are:

    • mutagens

    • teratogens

    • carcinogens

    • pesticides

    • fertilizers

  51. The global warming is primarily caused by:

    • increase of greenhouse gases concentration

    • increase of tropospheric ozone

    • decay of the organic compounds

    • increase of chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) concentration

    • use of alternative kinds of energy

  52. Herbicides are chemicals that can control population growth of undesirable organisms such as:

    • plants

    • worms

    • fungi

    • insects

    • bacteria

  53. Factors that specifically cause abnormalities during embryo development are called:

    • teratogens

    • mutagens

    • carcinogens

    • pesticides

    • fungicides

  54. Organic garbage that is a subject to decay by microorganisms is called:

    • biodegradable

    • 100% recycled

    • renewable

    • nonrenewable

    • nonbiodegradable

  55. Renewable resources include:

    • humus

    • oil

    • coal

    • natural gas

    • minerals

  56. Nonrenewable resources include:

    • minerals

    • soil

    • wildlife

    • forests

    • phytoplankton

  57. The main characteristic of biomass pyramids of freshwater or marine is to be:

    • inverted

    • right

    • depends on a particular ecosystem

    • do not change

    • changes cyclically

  58. According to number pyramids, a quantity of organisms at a higher trophic level:

    • decreases

    • do not change

    • increases

    • changes cyclically

    • depends on a particular ecosystem

  59. Amount of energy passing from one trophic level to the next one is:

    • 10%

    • 100%

    • 50%

    • 25%

    • 1%

  60. Consumers, such as humans, that obtain their nutrients by eating both producers and other consumers are called:

    • omnivores

    • carnivores

    • herbivores

    • scavengers

    • autotrophs

  61. Consumers, such as wolves, that obtain their nutrients by eating other consumers are:

    • carnivores

    • herbivores

    • omnivores

    • scavengers

    • autotrophs

  62. Consumers that obtain their nutrients by eating producers are:

    • herbivores

    • autotrophs

    • carnivores

    • omnivores

    • scavengers

  63. The wolf and the fox are on the same trophic level because both animals:

    • eat herbivore organisms

    • live on the land

    • use food at 10%

    • have large size

    • have similar behavior

  64. Autotrophic organisms are:

    • plants

    • fungi

    • insects

    • birds

    • reptiles

  65. Heterotrophic organisms are:

    • jellyfish

    • chemosynthetic bacteria

    • plants

    • photosynthetic bacteria

    • phototrophs

  66. Organisms that use ready food are called:

    • heterotrophs

    • phototrophs

    • autotrophs

    • chemotrophs

    • producers

  67. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is captured by:

    • nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    • nitrifying bacteria

    • denitrifying bacteria

    • plants

    • fungi

  68. Primary productivity is the energy contained in the trophic level of:

    • producers

    • herbivores

    • carnivores

    • omnivores

    • decomposers

  69. Plants in an ecosystem play the following role:

    • synthesize organic substances from inorganic compounds

    • are primary consumers

    • decompose organic substances to inorganic compounds

    • are secondary consumers

    • are decomposers

  70. Define the right order of components in the trophic chain "tree - hare - fox":

    • producer - primary consumer - secondary consumer

    • heterotroph - primary consumer - secondary consumer

    • autotroph - heterotroph - decomposer

    • producer - heterotroph - decomposer

    • producer - consumer - decomposer

  71. The following is Not correctly matched:

    • herbivore - autotroph

    • heterotroph - consumer

    • phototroph - plants

    • carnivore - animals

    • bacteria - decomposer

  72. The major producers found in aquatic ecosystems are:

    • phytoplankton

    • aquatic plants

    • zooplankton

    • chemosynthetic bacteria

    • benthos

  73. Two species that occupy a very similar niche are likely to be:

    • competitors

    • commensalists

    • mutualists

    • predators

    • parasites

  74. An interaction between two species in which species benefit each other is:

    • mutualism

    • parasitism

    • competition

    • predation

    • commensalism

  75. Type of biotic relationship when one species benefits and other one has neither harm nor profit:

    • commensalism

    • predation

    • parasitism

    • competition

    • mutualism

  76. Example of interspecific competition is relationship between:

    • black cockroaches and red cockroaches

    • thinning fur trees out in a population

    • organism-host and worms-parasite

    • wolves in a pack

    • some mushrooms and trees

  77. Competition, predation, and symbiosis are all types of:

    • biotic relationships

    • annual rhythms

    • parasitic relationships

    • biogeochemical cycles

    • abiotic relationships

  78. Anthropogenic sources of pollution are:

    • automobile exhausts

    • earthquake

    • electromagnetic waves

    • volcano eruption

    • flood

  79. Environment that is changed by people is:

    • second nature, or quasi-nature

    • social environment

    • first nature, or ecological space

    • third nature, or art-nature

    • anthropogenic impact

  80. Noosphere - is an evolutionary step of biosphere that:

    • is transformed by conscious human activity

    • is occupied by living organisms on the Earth

    • has an negative anthropogenic impact

    • includes past life on the Earth planet

    • includes technogenic activity of humans

  81. The term "Noosphere" was introduced by:

    • Le Rois

    • Vernadsky

    • Liebig

    • Suess

    • Heckel

  82. The author of the study about biosphere is:

    • Vernadsky

    • Shelford

    • Commoner

    • Liebig

    • Heckel

  83. The term "Biosphere" was introduced by:

    • Suess

    • Vernadsky

    • Heckel

    • Darwin

    • Commoner

  84. The area of the earth occupied with living things is called:

    • biosphere

    • environment

    • troposphere

    • stratosphere

    • noosphere

  85. A volcanic eruption is an example of:

    • a density-independent factor

    • a density-dependent factor

    • something that would be charted on an J-shaped curve

    • something that would be charted on an S-shaped curve

    • anthropogenic factor

  86. A population with rapid growth includes the following age groups:

    • most of the population is pre-reproductive or reproductive

    • there are equal proportions of pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive ones

    • most of the population is reproductive or post-reproductive

    • almost all of the population is in the reproductive age group

    • most of the population is post-reproductive

  87. The global human population grew very slowly until:

    • the industrial revolution

    • great scientific discoveries were done

    • the bubonic plague ravaged Europe

    • hunter-gatherer societies emerged

    • the origin of agriculture

  88. The sigmoidal growth curve is typical of a population that:

    • is regulated by density-dependent factors

    • has more births

    • is growing exponentially

    • is not limited by its environment

    • population exhibits J-shaped growth curve

  89. Population growth is exponential when:

    • the birthrate reaches its biotic potential

    • the birthrate is lower than the death rate

    • the birthrate is about the same as the death rate

    • the birthrate is limited by lack of resources

    • environment can not support a larger population

  90. The carrying capacity of a population does Not include the statement:

    • the population exhibits J-shaped growth curve

    • there is environment resistance

    • the birthrate is equal to the death rate

    • resources must be limited

    • the environment cannot support a larger population

  91. Dynamic characteristics of population is:

    • population growth rate

    • individuals distribution in the space

    • population number

    • individuals sex and age groups

    • population density

  92. Statistic characteristic of population is:

    • population number

    • birthrate

    • survival rate

    • population growth

    • death rate

  93. Population growth rate is:

    • individuals number change in a population over specific period of time

    • a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place

    • a number of individuals in a given population

    • the number of individuals in given area at a given time

    • a difference between birthrate and death rate

  94. Species that are localized and may have just one population that inhabit only a small area are called:

    • endemic

    • eyrobionts

    • stenobionts

    • extinct

    • relict

  95. Homeothermic organisms are:

    • birds and mammals

    • all vertebrate animals

    • fungi and bacteria

    • only mammals

    • all plants

  96. Poikilothermic are organisms with:

    • a body temperature depending on environment temperature

    • a large range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • a narrow range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • a constant temperature of their body

    • one population that inhabits only a small area

  97. Xerophytes are organisms that:

    • are adapted to drought and environmental water shortage

    • with a narrow range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • with a constant temperature not depending on environment temperature

    • with a large range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • form one population that inhabits only a small area

  98. Stenobionts are organisms with:

    • a narrow range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • a large range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • a constant temperature of their body

    • a body temperature depending on environment temperature

    • one population that inhabits only a small area

  99. Ecological factor that limits viability of organisms is:

    • critical

    • stress

    • optimal

    • favorable

    • effective

  100. Eyrobionts are organisms with:

    • a large range tolerance to an ecological factor are called

    • one population that inhabits only a small area

    • a narrow range tolerance to an ecological factor

    • a constant temperature of their body

    • a body temperature depending on environment temperature

  101. Tolerance is:

    • limits of organisms stability to effect of ecological factors

    • response of an organism to excess of any ecological factor

    • optimal conditions for metabolism of living organisms

    • minimum of factors available to organisms life

    • adaptation to a particular environment

  102. Regularity that suggests that each environmental factor has limits of its positive influence on the organism is described by:

    • Shelford’s principle of tolerance limits

    • Liebig’s law of the minimum

    • Vernadsky’s study about biosphere

    • Commoner’s ecological law

    • Lindeman’s rule of 10%

  103. Regularity that suggests that organism growth is limited by the resource in the shortest supply is described by:

    • Liebig’s law of the minimum

    • Shelford’s principle of tolerance limits

    • Vernadsky’s study about biosphere

    • Commoner’s ecological law

    • Darwin’s theory of evolution

  104. The earth’s biomes are controlled primarily by:

    • temperature and precipitation

    • soil and species diversity

    • soil and rainfall

    • species diversity and temperature

    • humidity and species diversity

  105. Biotic factors in an ecosystem can include:

    • pollination of flowers by insects

    • temperature and humidity

    • speed and direction of the wind

    • tidal and annual rhythms

    • relief and soil composition

  106. Abiotic factors in an ecosystem can include:

    • sunlight

    • plants

    • animals

    • microorganisms

    • fungi

  107. Succession is a process where:

    • a community changes over time

    • a dominant male is replaced by a subordinate

    • energy moves through a food web

    • nutrients are recycled

    • organisms are adapted to environment

  108. A community includes:

    • all the populations in an area

    • all living factors of an environment

    • all parts of the earth where life exists

    • all the members of one species

    • all nonliving factors in an environment

  109. Ecosystem is:

    • an ecological unit that includes biotic and abiotic factors

    • the sum of all nonliving parts of an area that are interrelated

    • all the organisms which interact each other

    • all the populations in an area

    • an ecological niche of living organism

  110. The term "Ecosystem" was introduced by:

    • Tansley

    • Vernadsky

    • Heckel

    • Suess

    • Commoner

  111. A position of an organism defined by its role in a biological community:

    • niche

    • habitat

    • ecosystem

    • biome

    • environment

  112. The physical area in which an organism lives is its:

    • habitat

    • ecosystem

    • ecological niche

    • trophic level

    • environment

  113. Structure and functions of biosphere is studied by:

    • global ecology

    • synecology

    • autecology

    • demecology

    • social ecology

  114. Synecology - is a section of ecology that studies:

    • changes of communities over time

    • biological diversity

    • adaptations of organisms

    • evolution processes of organisms

    • common characteristics of populations in an ecosystem

  115. Demecology - is a section of ecology that studies:

    • common characteristics of populations in an ecosystem

    • influence of pollution to living organisms

    • biotic relationships in a community

    • adaptations of organisms to environment

    • formation of new species

  116. Autecology- is a section of ecology that studies an effect of environmental factors to:

    • individual organisms

    • formation of new species

    • characteristics of populations

    • functional groups of an ecosystem

    • biotic relationships in a community

  117. Ecological law "Nature knows better" was proposed by:

    • Commoner

    • Heckel

    • Liebig

    • Vernadsky

    • Shelford

  118. Environment is:

    • outside the organism in which an organism lives and which affects it

    • all parts of the earth where life exists

    • a condition of balance between organism and its surrounding

    • biotic relationships between individuals

    • a large area identified by the presence of dominant plants and animals

  119. Ecology is a science that studies:

    • interaction between organisms and environment

    • pollution of environment

    • life on the earth

    • social problems

    • climatic changes

  120. The term "Ecology" was introduced by:

    • Heckel

    • Vernadsky

    • Commoner

    • Liebig

    • Shelford



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