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Lastowka G. et al. Turkmen-English Dictionary - файл dict.doc

Lastowka G. et al. Turkmen-English Dictionary
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^ Bu üzümler ?ol üzümlerden süÿji

Bu üzümler ?ol üzümlerden süÿjiräk = These grapes are sweeter than those grapes

The -rak/räk ending can be used to indicate a comparitive idea without the actual comparative structure:

^ Olaryñ köÿnekleri kelteräk = Their dresses are (generally) shorter.

To form the superlative, the words or has (most) are added before the adjective:

Maral meniñ iñ gowy okuwçym = Maral is my best pupil.

Bu ma?ynlardan seniñki has owadan = Of all these cars yours is the most beautiful.

^ Sekizinji klaslaryñ iñ ökde okuwçylaryny saÿla = Choose the most talented pupils of the eighth grade.

9.0 Some Unusual Structures in Turkmen Grammar

A. Comparisons "As... as"

Your hat is as expensive as hers. =

Seniñ ?lÿapañ hem onuñky ÿaly gymmat.

Your hat and hers as expensive.

Your dog is as big as his. =

^ Seniñ itiñ hem onuñky ÿaly uly.

Your dog and his as big.

Their students are as good as ours. =

Onuñ owkuwçylar hem biziñki ÿaly gowy.

Their students and ours as good.

B. I (verb) (noun) to (verb)

I want him to come. =

Onuñ gelmegini isleÿärin.

His to come I want.

She wants you to listen. =

Ol seniñ e?itmegiñi isleÿär.

She your to listen wants.

I was asking her to do so. =

^ Onuñ ?eÿle etmegini haÿy? edÿärdim.

Her so to do I was asking.

I want him to come. =

Onuñ gelmegini isleÿärin.

His coming I want.

10.0 Go?ylmalar

Letters, go?ylmalar, are added to verbs to change their function.

10.1: Passive

Adding these go?ylmalar changes the verb to passive voice where the doer of the sentence is unspoken.

-yl/-il; -ul/-ül; -l

Meniñ ejem uly halyny dokady.=

My mother made/wove a big carpet.

?u haly ÿüñden dokyldy.=

This carpet was made/woven from wool.

?u ÿyl iki ÿazyjy täze hekaÿalary döretdiler.

This year two writers created new stories.

¥añy-ÿakynda ?äherimiz hakynda täze go?gy döretildi.=

A new poem was written about our city.

10.2: Reflexive

Adding these go?ylmalar make the verb reflexive where the action of the sentence has its effect on the person or thing that does the action.

-yn/-in; -un/-ün; -n

Günde meniñ joralarymy görÿärin.=

I see my girlfriends everyday.

^ Ol i?e gidip görenip gaÿtdy.=

He went to work, showed himself and left.

Kakam paltany ma?yna söÿedi.=

My father leaned the axe against the car.

Men ardamyny diwara söÿendym.=

I leaned my back against the wall.

10.3: Reciprocal

Adding these go?ylmalar make the verb exchanged between two people or groups, or given and recieved in return.

-y?/-i?; -u?/ü?; -?

Maral jigisini gyjaklady.=

Maral hugged her little brother/sister.

^ Dostlar gyjakla?dylar we og?a?dylar.=

The friends hugged and kissed each other.

Sen Selbini gördüñmi?=

Did you see Selbi?

Biz göre?ip salamla?dyk.=

We saw and greeted each other.

10.4: Causitive

Adding these go?ylmalar makes the subject of the verb also the cause of an action or state.

-dyr/-dir; -dur/-dür;-yr/-ir; -ur/-ür; -uz,-üz; -ar/-er; -der/-dar; -t

Men ?u kitap bilen gyzyklanamok.=

I am not interested in this book.

^ Meniñ mugallymym maña Türkmen go?gularany öwrenmäge gyzyklandyrdy.-

My teacher got me interested in Turkmen poetry.

Mergen öÿe gelip derrew yatdy.=

Mergen came home and went to sleep right away.

^ Gül?at çagalaryny giç ÿatardy.=

Gulshat put her children to bed late.

Men Ainabady görenimde güldim.=

When I saw Ainabat, I laughed.

Ol gülkunçli dege?me aÿdanynda dostlaryny gülderdi.

He made his friends laugh when he told a funny joke.

^ Men ÿerde çökip gülleri ni çöpledim.=

I knelt on the ground and picked flowers.

Çopan düÿäni çökerdi.=

The shepherd made the camel kneel down.

Tomsuna hemme adama ir turÿar.=

Everyone gets up/wakes up early in the summer.

^ Sagat onda maña turuzsana!=

Wake me up at 10 o'clock!

Ol i?ini etdi.=

He did the work.

Ol meni holynda i?letdi.=

He made me work in the yard.

Only görmek=to see uses go?ylma -kez in its causitive form:

^ Olar bizi köçede gördiler.=

They saw us on the street.

Men suratlarymy jorama görkezÿärin.=

I am showing my friend my pictures.

11.0 Four Important Modal Verbs: otyr, ÿatyr, dur, ÿör

Four verbs in Turkmen, oturmak, ÿatmak, durmak, and ÿörmek, have special 3rd person singular forms, otyr, ÿatyr, dur, and ÿör, respectively, that can be used alone or with compound verb structures to indicate a continuous action or the physical position of something. Personal endings are added to these 3rd person forms as such:

men otyryn men ÿatyrn men durun

sen otyrsyñ sen ÿatyrsyñ sen dursuñ

ol otyr ol ÿatyr ol dur

biz otyrys biz ÿatyrys biz durus

siz otyrsyñyz siz ÿatyrsyñyz siz dursuñyz

olar oyrlar olar ÿatyrlar olar durlar

*The 3rd person singular, ÿör, is used alone only in certain regional dialects.

Examples of the use of the three above forms are as follows:

^ Myrat ?u wagt ÿatyr=Myrat is sleeping now.

Meniñ dostum mugallymlar jaÿynda otyr=My friend is sitting in the teachers' room.

Ma?ynym mekdebiñiziñ öñünde dur=My car is in front of your school.

In compound structures, these verbs' meanings are retained only in that they indicate the position of the doer of the action:

^ Ol okap ÿatyr=He is reading. (while lying down)

Men çaÿ içip otyryn=I'm drinking tea. (while seated)

Ol taÿda toÿ gidip dur=There's a party going on over there. (in one place)

^ Sag-aman i?läp ÿörsiñizmi?=Are you (safely) working? (continuously)

Physical objects capable of continuous action but not movement such as cars, refrigerators, electricity, and televisions, use dur in compound structures:

^ Swet ÿanyp dur=The lights are on.

Holodilnik i?läp dur=The refrigerator is running.

Duhowka ÿanyp dur=The oven is hot (on).

12.0 Selected Suffixes and Prefixes

12.1: -çy/-çi

The suffix -çy or -çi, according to vowel harmony, functions like -ist or -er in English to denote occupation, profession, or position.

i? work i?çi worker

okuw school okuwçy pupil

In certain cases where the verbs are made into nouns, the suffix becomes -jy or -ji:

diñlemek to listen diñleÿji listener

okamak to read okaÿjy reader

ÿasamak to craft ÿasaÿjy master

12.2: -dar

The suffix, -dar can make personal nouns out of other nouns. It is unaffected by vowel harmony.

bergi debt bergidar debtor

tarap side tarapdar supporter

12.3: -ke?

The suffix -ke? personalizes certain nouns indicative of a particular cistom or habit.

gybat gossip gybatke? gossipper

nas chewing tobacco naske? tobacco chewer (habitual)

çilim cigarette çilimke? smoker

12.4: -siz/-suz/-syz

The suffixes -siz, -suz, or -syz, according to vowel harmony, mean without or un-.

tertip order tertipsiz disorderly

howp danger howpsuz secure

jan spirit jansyz inanimate

12.5: -lik/-lük/-lyk/-luk

These suffixes function to create abstract nouns, like -hood, -ness, or -ity in English. They adhere to vowel harmony.

gözel beautiful gözellik beauty

köp much, many köplük collective

çaga child çagalyk childhood

dost friend dostluk friendship

These suffixes can also make nouns and adjectives from numerical expressions.

bä? five bä?lik five-Manat note

bir ÿyl one year bir ÿyllyk a year's worth

on üç thirteen on üçlük bus #13

These suffixes make nouns and adjectives which show purpose.

gün day gündelik diary

ÿetmek to suffice ÿeterlik enough

el hand ellik glove

12.6: The prefix bi-

The prefix bi- expresses the idea of without-. It does not affect, nor is subject to, vowel harmony.

tarap side bitarap neutral

günä sin bigünä innocent

The above forms can then combine with the -lik/-lük/-lyk/-luk forms to form nouns.

bitaraplyk neutrality

bigünälik innocence

12.7: -daky/-däki

These suffixes adhere to the rules of vowel harmony and act as adjective clauses do in English, as in the following examples:

^ Men ?ol kinodaky gyzy halamok.

I don't like the girl in that film.

Tejendäki mugallymlar biziñ ÿygnagymyza gelÿärler.

The teachers from Tejen are coming to our meeting.

A?gabatdaky çörek biziñkiden gowy.

The bread in Ashgabat is better than ours.

Öÿüñizdäkilere köp salam aÿt!

Say "hi" to those at your house.

^ 10njy "A" klasdaky okuwçylaryñ tertibi gowy däl.

The pupils of the 10th "A" class are not well behaved.

Eliñdäkini aÿyr!

Get rid of what's in your hand!

Parkyñ içindäki gazly suw ?äherimiziñ iñ gowysy.

The juice in the park is the best in our city.

^ Mekdebiñ ÿanyndaky howlyda toÿ bar.

There's a party in the yard next to the school.

Men ?u köÿnekdäki ÿakany gowy görÿärin.

I like the yoke (collar) of this dress.

Öten ÿyldaky hasyl bu ÿylydakydan köpdi.

Last year's harvest was more than this year's.

13.0 Expressing Needs and Desires

Although in Turkmen there is a way to express a wish to do something that parallels the English use of infinitives, such as Men çaÿ içmek isleÿärin (I want to drink tea), a far more common way to express desires involves a construction unlike any in English, utilizing the verb gelmek as a helping verb: Meniñ çaÿ içesim gelÿär (My-tea-drinking-comes).This would roughly translate as "I want to drink tea." or "I feel like drinking tea." The main verb içmek has the personal ending -esim added to the stem, with gelmek in the 3rd person singular, gelÿär. Note the use of posessive pronouns rather than personal pronouns in the following charts:

-mak verbs

meniñ ÿat-asym gelÿär I'd like to sleep

seniñ ÿat-asyñ gelÿär You'd like to sleep

onuñ ÿat-asy gelÿär He'd like to sleep

biziñ ÿat-asymyz gelÿär We'd like to sleep

siziñ ÿat-asyñyz gelÿär You'd like to sleep

olaryñ ÿat-asy gelÿär They'd like to sleep

-mek verbs

meniñ iç-esim gelÿär I'd like to drink

seniñ iç-esiñ gelÿär You'd like to drink

onuñ iç-esi gelÿär He'd like to drink

biziñ iç-esimiz gelÿär We'd like to drink

siziñ iç-esiñiz gelÿär You'd like to drink

olaryñ iç-esi gelÿär They'd like to drink

The negative is formed by changing the gelÿär to gelmeÿär or gelenok:

Meniñ hiç zady iÿesim gelenok. I don't feel like eating anything.

The past tense is also possible, as such:

^ Meniñ bir zady bilesim geldi. I wanted to know something.

14.0 Indicating Possibility: mümkin

The word mümkin is used to indicate possibility or to ask permission for an action, using infinitive verbs, such as:

Çilim çekmek mümkinmi? Is it possible to smoke? (May I smoke?)

^ Girmek mümkinmi? May I come in?

Jañ etmek mümkinmi? May I make a call?

Grammatically, it can be used to signify "may" or "might," as in:

Men ertir siziñ mekdebiñize geläÿmegim mümkin.

I might come to your school tomorrow.

^ Men hat ÿazaÿmagym mümkin.

I might write a leter.

-mak verbs

men ÿaz-aÿmagym mümkin I might write

sen ÿaz-aÿmagyñ mümkin you might write

ol ÿaz-aÿmagy mümkin he/she might write

biz ÿaz-aÿmagymyz mümkin we might write

siz ÿaz-aÿmagyñyz mümkin you might write

olar ÿaz-aÿmagy mümkin they might write

-mek verbs

men gel-äÿmegim mümkin I might come

sen gel-äÿmegiñ mümkin you might come

ol gel-äÿmegi mümkin he/she might come

biz gel-äÿmegimiz mümkin we might come

siz gel-äÿmegiñiz mümkin you might come

olar gel-äÿmegi mümkin they might come

The negative is formed as such:

^ Men ertir mekdebiñize gelmezligim mümkin.

I might not come to your school tomorrow.

Men hat ÿazmazlygym mümkin.

I might not write a letter.

-mak verbs

men ÿaz-mazlygym mümkin I might write

sen ÿaz-mazlygyñ mümkin you might write

ol ÿaz-mazlygy mümkin he/she might write

biz ÿaz-mazlygymyz mümkin we might write

siz ÿaz-mazlygyñyz mümkin you might write

olar ÿaz-mazlygy mümkin they might write

-mek verbs

men gel-mezligim mümkin I might come

sen gel-mezligiñ mümkin you might come

ol gel-mezligi mümkin he/she might come

biz gel-mezligimiz mümkin we might come

siz gel-mezligiñiz mümkin you might come

olar gel-mezligi mümkin they might come

15.0 -dygy/ digi

Men oña alty-da geljekdigimi aÿtdym.

I told him I would come at 6:00.

Siz maña näme isleÿändigiñizi aÿdyñ.

Tell me what you want.

Ol maña köp zat öwrenÿändigini aÿtdy.

He told me he's learning a lot.

^ Ol maña seniñ gelendigiñi aÿtdy.

She told me that you came (had come).

Köwü?iñ bahasynyñ näçcdigini aÿdyp biljekmi?

Can you tell me how much your shoes cost?

Mugallymyñ nirededigini bilÿärsiñmi?

Do you know where the teacher is?

^ Men ol gyzyñ menden ulydygyny bilÿärin.

I know that girl is taller than I.

Men seniñ kitabyñ meniñkiden gowydygyny bilÿärin.

I know your book is better than mine.

Biz ?u kitabyñ sözlükdigini bilÿäris.

We know this book is a dictionary.

16.0 Double Verbs

Whereas in English we conjugate all verbs and place "and" between them when two actions are done at once or at relatively the same time, Turkmen employs a structure that puts the two verbs together. The first verb is reduced to its stem and the participial ending -yp or -ip, according to vowel harmony, is added. The ending of the second verb determines the doer of the action indicated, as below.

^ Men düÿn nahar iÿip ÿatdym.

Yesterday I ate and went to sleep.

Men radio diñläp hat ÿazÿaryn.

I'm listening to the radio and writing a letter.

This form may be used to express an action which has been or will be completed before the expressed action of the second verb:

^ Biz iÿip gelÿäris.

We ate before coming. (lit. We–eat-come)

Nahar iÿip okuwa gidiñ!

Eat before going to school. (lit. Food-eat-to-school-go)

Swedi öçürip gaÿt.

Go turn off the light. (lit. Light-turn off-come back)

The participlial -ip and -yp endings have negative counterparts, -män and -man, also added to the stem of the first verb

Çagalar iÿmän okuwa gitdiler.

The children went without eating.

^ Okuwçylar okaman sapaga gelÿärler.

The pupils come to the lesson without studying.

16.1 Expressing Ability: -p/-yp/-ip bilmek

A modal structure involving bilmek is used to convey the idea of being able to do something.

^ Men Türkmençe okap bilÿärin = I can read Turkmen

Ol Rusça ÿazyp bilenok = He can't write Russian

Biz bazara gidip biljek däl = We won't be able to go to the bazaar

16.2 Doing an Action for Someone: -p/-yp/-ip bermek

A modal structure involving bermek is used to express the doing of an action for someone:

^ Men size jaÿy salyp berdim = I built a house for you

?ol gapyny ÿapyp bermesene = Don't close that door

?ol käsäni saña alyp bererin = I'll give you that teacup

According to vowel harmony the main verb's stem is followed by the participial ending -yp or -ip, and bermek appears according to the doer of the action and the tense.

16.3 Attempted Action: -p/-yp/-ip görmek

A modal structure involving görmek is used to express the idea of trying to do something, or the idea of doing-and-seeing:

^ Bu nahary datyp gör = Try this food

Men pikir edip göreÿin = Let me think about it (and see)

?ol köÿnegi geÿip gördi = She tried on that dress

16.4 Anticipated Action: -jak/-jek bolmak

A modal structure involving the future tense and bolmak is used to indicate the idea of being about to do something:

^ Sen ÿatjak bolÿañmy? = Are you about to sleep?

Olar saña jañ etjek bolÿarlar = They're about to call you

Gara?yñ, men iÿjek bolÿaryn = Wait, I'm going to (about to) eat


The following works were used in preparing this dictionary:

A. Almammedov, R. Nazarov. ^ English-Turkmen Dictionary. - Magaryph Publishers. Ashgabad. 1989. 10,000 words from English to Turkmen.

P. Azimova. Turkmenche-Ruscha Okuw Sozlugi. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1988. 9000 words from Turkmen to Russian. Our main reference text.

B. Chariyarova. Bolshoy Russko-Turkmenskiy Slovar. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1987. 77,000 entries in two volumes, translations from Russian to Turkmen.

B. Jumageldieva, G. Sopieva. Turkmenche-Ruscha Gysgalzha Tematik Sozlugi. - Ashgabad "Ilham". 1994. 75 pages of thematic word lists, listing Russian and Turkmen.

B. Meskutova. Ruscha-Turkmenche Okuw Sozlugi. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1982. 5000 words from Russian to Turkmen.

M. Soyegov, N. Rejepov. Taze Turkmen Elipbi. - Ashgabat "Ruh". 1993. An introduction to the new Turkmen alphabet for Turkmen speakers.

M. Wheeler. The Oxford Russian-English Dictionary. - New York "Oxford University Press". 1992. 82,000 entries from Russian to English.

The following additional works were used as references in preparing the brief grammatical appendix:

R. Nepesova, O. Yaslydeva. Let's Speak English. - Ashgabat "Ilim". 1992. Beginning English for Turkmen Speakers.

Peace Corps Turkmenistan. Turkmen. - Ashgabad. 1995. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.

N. Rejepov. Turkmenskiy Yazik. - Ashgabad "Magarif". 1993. Beginning Turkmen for Russian Speakers.

A. Retman, R. Retman. Let's Learn to Speak English. - Ashgabat. 1992. Beginning English for Turkmen Speakers.

Turkmen Language Project. Turkmen Language Course. - Indiana University. 1994. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.

D. Tyson, L. Clark. Turkmen Language Manual, 2nd Edition. - "U.S. Peace Corps". 1994. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.

J. Yagmirov. Turkmen Dilini Owrenyeris. - Ashabad "Ilim". 1993. Beginning Turkmen for Russian Speakers.

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