Lastowka G. et al. Turkmen-English Dictionary
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Bu üzümler ?ol üzümlerden süÿjiräk = These grapes are sweeter than those grapes
The -rak/räk ending can be used to indicate a comparitive idea without the actual comparative structure:
^ k = Their dresses are (generally) shorter.
To form the superlative, the words iñ or has (most) are added before the adjective:
Maral meniñ iñ gowy okuwçym = Maral is my best pupil.
Bu ma?ynlardan seniñki has owadan = Of all these cars yours is the most beautiful.
^ = Choose the most talented pupils of the eighth grade.
9.0 Some Unusual Structures in Turkmen Grammar
A. Comparisons "As... as"
Your hat is as expensive as hers. =
Seniñ ?lÿapañ hem onuñky ÿaly gymmat.
Your hat and hers as expensive.
Your dog is as big as his. =
Your dog and his as big.
Their students are as good as ours. =
Onuñ owkuwçylar hem biziñki ÿaly gowy.
Their students and ours as good.
B. I (verb) (noun) to (verb)
I want him to come. =
Onuñ gelmegini isleÿärin.
His to come I want.
She wants you to listen. =
Ol seniñ e?itmegiñi isleÿär.
She your to listen wants.
I was asking her to do so. =
Her so to do I was asking.
I want him to come. =
Onuñ gelmegini isleÿärin.
His coming I want.
Letters, go?ylmalar, are added to verbs to change their function.
Adding these go?ylmalar changes the verb to passive voice where the doer of the sentence is unspoken.
-yl/-il; -ul/-ül; -l
Meniñ ejem uly halyny dokady.=
My mother made/wove a big carpet.
?u haly ÿüñden dokyldy.=
This carpet was made/woven from wool.
?u ÿyl iki ÿazyjy täze hekaÿalary döretdiler.
This year two writers created new stories.
¥añy-ÿakynda ?äherimiz hakynda täze go?gy döretildi.=
A new poem was written about our city.
Adding these go?ylmalar make the verb reflexive where the action of the sentence has its effect on the person or thing that does the action.
-yn/-in; -un/-ün; -n
Günde meniñ joralarymy görÿärin.=
I see my girlfriends everyday.
He went to work, showed himself and left.
Kakam paltany ma?yna söÿedi.=
My father leaned the axe against the car.
Men ardamyny diwara söÿendym.=
I leaned my back against the wall.
Adding these go?ylmalar make the verb exchanged between two people or groups, or given and recieved in return.
-y?/-i?; -u?/ü?; -?
Maral jigisini gyjaklady.=
Maral hugged her little brother/sister.
The friends hugged and kissed each other.
Sen Selbini gördüñmi?=
Did you see Selbi?
Biz göre?ip salamla?dyk.=
We saw and greeted each other.
Adding these go?ylmalar makes the subject of the verb also the cause of an action or state.
-dyr/-dir; -dur/-dür;-yr/-ir; -ur/-ür; -uz,-üz; -ar/-er; -der/-dar; -t
Men ?u kitap bilen gyzyklanamok.=
I am not interested in this book.
My teacher got me interested in Turkmen poetry.
Mergen öÿe gelip derrew yatdy.=
Mergen came home and went to sleep right away.
Gulshat put her children to bed late.
Men Ainabady görenimde güldim.=
When I saw Ainabat, I laughed.
Ol gülkunçli dege?me aÿdanynda dostlaryny gülderdi.
He made his friends laugh when he told a funny joke.
I knelt on the ground and picked flowers.
Çopan düÿäni çökerdi.=
The shepherd made the camel kneel down.
Tomsuna hemme adama ir turÿar.=
Everyone gets up/wakes up early in the summer.
Wake me up at 10 o'clock!
Ol i?ini etdi.=
He did the work.
Ol meni holynda i?letdi.=
He made me work in the yard.
Only görmek=to see uses go?ylma -kez in its causitive form:
They saw us on the street.
Men suratlarymy jorama görkezÿärin.=
I am showing my friend my pictures.
11.0 Four Important Modal Verbs: otyr, ÿatyr, dur, ÿör
Four verbs in Turkmen, oturmak, ÿatmak, durmak, and ÿörmek, have special 3rd person singular forms, otyr, ÿatyr, dur, and ÿör, respectively, that can be used alone or with compound verb structures to indicate a continuous action or the physical position of something. Personal endings are added to these 3rd person forms as such:
men otyryn men ÿatyrn men durun
sen otyrsyñ sen ÿatyrsyñ sen dursuñ
ol otyr ol ÿatyr ol dur
biz otyrys biz ÿatyrys biz durus
siz otyrsyñyz siz ÿatyrsyñyz siz dursuñyz
olar oyrlar olar ÿatyrlar olar durlar
*The 3rd person singular, ÿör, is used alone only in certain regional dialects.
Examples of the use of the three above forms are as follows:
^ =Myrat is sleeping now.
Meniñ dostum mugallymlar jaÿynda otyr=My friend is sitting in the teachers' room.
Ma?ynym mekdebiñiziñ öñünde dur=My car is in front of your school.
In compound structures, these verbs' meanings are retained only in that they indicate the position of the doer of the action:
^ =He is reading. (while lying down)
Men çaÿ içip otyryn=I'm drinking tea. (while seated)
Ol taÿda toÿ gidip dur=There's a party going on over there. (in one place)
^ =Are you (safely) working? (continuously)
Physical objects capable of continuous action but not movement such as cars, refrigerators, electricity, and televisions, use dur in compound structures:
^ =The lights are on.
Holodilnik i?läp dur=The refrigerator is running.
Duhowka ÿanyp dur=The oven is hot (on).
12.0 Selected Suffixes and Prefixes
The suffix -çy or -çi, according to vowel harmony, functions like -ist or -er in English to denote occupation, profession, or position.
i? work i?çi worker
okuw school okuwçy pupil
In certain cases where the verbs are made into nouns, the suffix becomes -jy or -ji:
diñlemek to listen diñleÿji listener
okamak to read okaÿjy reader
ÿasamak to craft ÿasaÿjy master
The suffix, -dar can make personal nouns out of other nouns. It is unaffected by vowel harmony.
bergi debt bergidar debtor
tarap side tarapdar supporter
The suffix -ke? personalizes certain nouns indicative of a particular cistom or habit.
gybat gossip gybatke? gossipper
nas chewing tobacco naske? tobacco chewer (habitual)
çilim cigarette çilimke? smoker
The suffixes -siz, -suz, or -syz, according to vowel harmony, mean without or un-.
tertip order tertipsiz disorderly
howp danger howpsuz secure
jan spirit jansyz inanimate
These suffixes function to create abstract nouns, like -hood, -ness, or -ity in English. They adhere to vowel harmony.
gözel beautiful gözellik beauty
köp much, many köplük collective
çaga child çagalyk childhood
dost friend dostluk friendship
These suffixes can also make nouns and adjectives from numerical expressions.
bä? five bä?lik five-Manat note
bir ÿyl one year bir ÿyllyk a year's worth
on üç thirteen on üçlük bus #13
These suffixes make nouns and adjectives which show purpose.
gün day gündelik diary
ÿetmek to suffice ÿeterlik enough
el hand ellik glove
12.6: The prefix bi-
The prefix bi- expresses the idea of without-. It does not affect, nor is subject to, vowel harmony.
tarap side bitarap neutral
günä sin bigünä innocent
The above forms can then combine with the -lik/-lük/-lyk/-luk forms to form nouns.
These suffixes adhere to the rules of vowel harmony and act as adjective clauses do in English, as in the following examples:
I don't like the girl in that film.
Tejendäki mugallymlar biziñ ÿygnagymyza gelÿärler.
The teachers from Tejen are coming to our meeting.
A?gabatdaky çörek biziñkiden gowy.
The bread in Ashgabat is better than ours.
Öÿüñizdäkilere köp salam aÿt!
Say "hi" to those at your house.
The pupils of the 10th "A" class are not well behaved.
Get rid of what's in your hand!
Parkyñ içindäki gazly suw ?äherimiziñ iñ gowysy.
The juice in the park is the best in our city.
There's a party in the yard next to the school.
Men ?u köÿnekdäki ÿakany gowy görÿärin.
I like the yoke (collar) of this dress.
Öten ÿyldaky hasyl bu ÿylydakydan köpdi.
Last year's harvest was more than this year's.
13.0 Expressing Needs and Desires
Although in Turkmen there is a way to express a wish to do something that parallels the English use of infinitives, such as Men çaÿ içmek isleÿärin (I want to drink tea), a far more common way to express desires involves a construction unlike any in English, utilizing the verb gelmek as a helping verb: Meniñ çaÿ içesim gelÿär (My-tea-drinking-comes).This would roughly translate as "I want to drink tea." or "I feel like drinking tea." The main verb içmek has the personal ending -esim added to the stem, with gelmek in the 3rd person singular, gelÿär. Note the use of posessive pronouns rather than personal pronouns in the following charts:
meniñ ÿat-asym gelÿär I'd like to sleep
seniñ ÿat-asyñ gelÿär You'd like to sleep
onuñ ÿat-asy gelÿär He'd like to sleep
biziñ ÿat-asymyz gelÿär We'd like to sleep
siziñ ÿat-asyñyz gelÿär You'd like to sleep
olaryñ ÿat-asy gelÿär They'd like to sleep
meniñ iç-esim gelÿär I'd like to drink
seniñ iç-esiñ gelÿär You'd like to drink
onuñ iç-esi gelÿär He'd like to drink
biziñ iç-esimiz gelÿär We'd like to drink
siziñ iç-esiñiz gelÿär You'd like to drink
olaryñ iç-esi gelÿär They'd like to drink
The negative is formed by changing the gelÿär to gelmeÿär or gelenok:
Meniñ hiç zady iÿesim gelenok. I don't feel like eating anything.
The past tense is also possible, as such:
^ I wanted to know something.
14.0 Indicating Possibility: mümkin
The word mümkin is used to indicate possibility or to ask permission for an action, using infinitive verbs, such as:
Çilim çekmek mümkinmi? Is it possible to smoke? (May I smoke?)
^ May I come in?
Jañ etmek mümkinmi? May I make a call?
Grammatically, it can be used to signify "may" or "might," as in:
Men ertir siziñ mekdebiñize geläÿmegim mümkin.
I might come to your school tomorrow.
I might write a leter.
men ÿaz-aÿmagym mümkin I might write
sen ÿaz-aÿmagyñ mümkin you might write
ol ÿaz-aÿmagy mümkin he/she might write
biz ÿaz-aÿmagymyz mümkin we might write
siz ÿaz-aÿmagyñyz mümkin you might write
olar ÿaz-aÿmagy mümkin they might write
men gel-äÿmegim mümkin I might come
sen gel-äÿmegiñ mümkin you might come
ol gel-äÿmegi mümkin he/she might come
biz gel-äÿmegimiz mümkin we might come
siz gel-äÿmegiñiz mümkin you might come
olar gel-äÿmegi mümkin they might come
The negative is formed as such:
I might not come to your school tomorrow.
Men hat ÿazmazlygym mümkin.
I might not write a letter.
men ÿaz-mazlygym mümkin I might write
sen ÿaz-mazlygyñ mümkin you might write
ol ÿaz-mazlygy mümkin he/she might write
biz ÿaz-mazlygymyz mümkin we might write
siz ÿaz-mazlygyñyz mümkin you might write
olar ÿaz-mazlygy mümkin they might write
men gel-mezligim mümkin I might come
sen gel-mezligiñ mümkin you might come
ol gel-mezligi mümkin he/she might come
biz gel-mezligimiz mümkin we might come
siz gel-mezligiñiz mümkin you might come
olar gel-mezligi mümkin they might come
15.0 -dygy/ digi
Men oña alty-da geljekdigimi aÿtdym.
I told him I would come at 6:00.
Siz maña näme isleÿändigiñizi aÿdyñ.
Tell me what you want.
Ol maña köp zat öwrenÿändigini aÿtdy.
He told me he's learning a lot.
She told me that you came (had come).
Köwü?iñ bahasynyñ näçcdigini aÿdyp biljekmi?
Can you tell me how much your shoes cost?
Mugallymyñ nirededigini bilÿärsiñmi?
Do you know where the teacher is?
I know that girl is taller than I.
Men seniñ kitabyñ meniñkiden gowydygyny bilÿärin.
I know your book is better than mine.
Biz ?u kitabyñ sözlükdigini bilÿäris.
We know this book is a dictionary.
16.0 Double Verbs
Whereas in English we conjugate all verbs and place "and" between them when two actions are done at once or at relatively the same time, Turkmen employs a structure that puts the two verbs together. The first verb is reduced to its stem and the participial ending -yp or -ip, according to vowel harmony, is added. The ending of the second verb determines the doer of the action indicated, as below.
Yesterday I ate and went to sleep.
Men radio diñläp hat ÿazÿaryn.
I'm listening to the radio and writing a letter.
This form may be used to express an action which has been or will be completed before the expressed action of the second verb:
We ate before coming. (lit. We–eat-come)
Nahar iÿip okuwa gidiñ!
Eat before going to school. (lit. Food-eat-to-school-go)
Swedi öçürip gaÿt.
Go turn off the light. (lit. Light-turn off-come back)
The participlial -ip and -yp endings have negative counterparts, -män and -man, also added to the stem of the first verb
Çagalar iÿmän okuwa gitdiler.
The children went without eating.
The pupils come to the lesson without studying.
16.1 Expressing Ability: -p/-yp/-ip bilmek
A modal structure involving bilmek is used to convey the idea of being able to do something.
^ = I can read Turkmen
Ol Rusça ÿazyp bilenok = He can't write Russian
Biz bazara gidip biljek däl = We won't be able to go to the bazaar
16.2 Doing an Action for Someone: -p/-yp/-ip bermek
A modal structure involving bermek is used to express the doing of an action for someone:
^ = I built a house for you
?ol gapyny ÿapyp bermesene = Don't close that door
?ol käsäni saña alyp bererin = I'll give you that teacup
According to vowel harmony the main verb's stem is followed by the participial ending -yp or -ip, and bermek appears according to the doer of the action and the tense.
16.3 Attempted Action: -p/-yp/-ip görmek
A modal structure involving görmek is used to express the idea of trying to do something, or the idea of doing-and-seeing:
^ = Try this food
Men pikir edip göreÿin = Let me think about it (and see)
?ol köÿnegi geÿip gördi = She tried on that dress
16.4 Anticipated Action: -jak/-jek bolmak
A modal structure involving the future tense and bolmak is used to indicate the idea of being about to do something:
^ = Are you about to sleep?
Olar saña jañ etjek bolÿarlar = They're about to call you
Gara?yñ, men iÿjek bolÿaryn = Wait, I'm going to (about to) eat
The following works were used in preparing this dictionary:
A. Almammedov, R. Nazarov. ^ . - Magaryph Publishers. Ashgabad. 1989. 10,000 words from English to Turkmen.
P. Azimova. Turkmenche-Ruscha Okuw Sozlugi. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1988. 9000 words from Turkmen to Russian. Our main reference text.
B. Chariyarova. Bolshoy Russko-Turkmenskiy Slovar. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1987. 77,000 entries in two volumes, translations from Russian to Turkmen.
B. Jumageldieva, G. Sopieva. Turkmenche-Ruscha Gysgalzha Tematik Sozlugi. - Ashgabad "Ilham". 1994. 75 pages of thematic word lists, listing Russian and Turkmen.
B. Meskutova. Ruscha-Turkmenche Okuw Sozlugi. - Moscow "Russkiy Yazik". 1982. 5000 words from Russian to Turkmen.
M. Soyegov, N. Rejepov. Taze Turkmen Elipbi. - Ashgabat "Ruh". 1993. An introduction to the new Turkmen alphabet for Turkmen speakers.
M. Wheeler. The Oxford Russian-English Dictionary. - New York "Oxford University Press". 1992. 82,000 entries from Russian to English.
The following additional works were used as references in preparing the brief grammatical appendix:
R. Nepesova, O. Yaslydeva. Let's Speak English. - Ashgabat "Ilim". 1992. Beginning English for Turkmen Speakers.
Peace Corps Turkmenistan. Turkmen. - Ashgabad. 1995. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.
N. Rejepov. Turkmenskiy Yazik. - Ashgabad "Magarif". 1993. Beginning Turkmen for Russian Speakers.
A. Retman, R. Retman. Let's Learn to Speak English. - Ashgabat. 1992. Beginning English for Turkmen Speakers.
Turkmen Language Project. Turkmen Language Course. - Indiana University. 1994. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.
D. Tyson, L. Clark. Turkmen Language Manual, 2nd Edition. - "U.S. Peace Corps". 1994. Compentency-based basic Turkmen instruction.
J. Yagmirov. Turkmen Dilini Owrenyeris. - Ashabad "Ilim". 1993. Beginning Turkmen for Russian Speakers.
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