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THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

THE UZBEK STATE WORLD LANGUAGES UNIVERSITY

II ENGLISH PHILOLOGY FACULTY

ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY DEPARTMENT


QUALIFICATION PAPER

on

Prefixation in the English language and its role in enriching the English vocabulary

.


Written by the student of

the 4th course group 414 В

Rahmonova S.B.


Scientific supervisor:

Azizova F. S.


Reviewer:

Umarova M.V.


This qualification paper is admitted to defense by the head of the

Department protocol № ___ of ___________ 2011


TASHKENT 2011


CONTENTS


Introduction……………………………………………………….3

Chapter I. Word-formation and its basic peculiarities……….……5

1.1. Affixation in the English language……………………..…….7

1.2. Degree of derivation…….…………………………...……….7

1.3.Homonymic derivational affixes……………………...……..18

Chapter II. Prefixation in the English language…………………28

  1. Prefixation. Some debatable problems………………...……28

  2. Classification of prefixes…………………………..………..33

  3. Productive and non-productive word building

prefixes…………………………………...…………………41

  1. Some prefixes in the English language in comparison with the
    Uzbek language………………………………….…….52

Conclusion…………………………………………………..….57
The list of used literature………………………………………..61


INTRODUCTION

This Qualification Paper is devoted to the theme «Prefixation in
the English language and its role in enriching the English
vocabulary».


^ The subject matter of the Qualification paper is «Prefixation in
English and Uzbek languages.

The object of the research work is Prefixation and its
classification, its productivity and non-productivity.

The main aim of the research work is the following tasks:

  • to give basic peculiarities of word formation;

  • affixation in the English language;

  • to study prefixations in English and Uzbek languages;

  • to give some examples of prefixes in the English language in
    comparison with the Uzbek language.

The actuality of the Qualification paper is the investigation of
Prefixation in English and Uzbek languages.

The theoretical value of our qualification paper is to do through research in the field of prefixation. Besides that, it can be used in delivering lectures on English lexicology.

^ The practical value of the work is to study thoroughly prefixation in English and Uzbek languages.

The structure of the Qualification paper is as follows:
introduction, 2 chapters, conclusion and summary and the last is used literature.

Introduction deals with the description of the structure of the
Qualification paper.

Chapter I deals with the general notion of Word formation,
affixation in the English language, degree of derivation and
homonymic derivational affixes.

Chapter II deals with prefixation, some debatable problems,
productive and non-productive word-building prefixes in the English
language, and some examples in English and Uzbek languages.

Conclusion deals with the theoretical and practical results of the
Qualification paper.

The list of used literature deals with the list of literature used in this research

work.

If we describe a word as an autonomous suit of language in
which a particular meaning is associated with a particular sound
complex and which is capable of a particular grammatical
employment and able to form a sentence by itself, we have the
possibility to distinguish it from the other fundamental language unit,
namely, the morpheme. According to the role the play in constructing words, morphemes are subdivided into roots and affixes. The latter are subdivided,
according to their, position, into prefixes and infixes, and according to
their function and meaning, into derivational and functional affixes,
the latter also called endings or enter formatives.

Affixation is the formation of words with the help of
derivational affixes. It is subdivided into prefixation and suffixation.

^ Ex: if a prefix dis is added to the stem like = (dislike) or suffix
ful to law = (lawful) we say a word is built by an affixation.

Derivation morphemes added after the stem of the word are
called suffixes (hand + ful).

Prefixes modify the lexical meaning of the stem meaning i.e. the
prefixed derivative mostly belongs to the same part of speech.

Ex: like (v) - dislike (v)

kind (adj) - unkind (adj)

but suffixes transfer words to a different part of speech:
Ex: teach (v) - teacher (n) and so on.

^ Chapter I. Word-formation and its basic peculiarities.

Word-building is one of the main ways of enriching vocabulary. There are four main ways of word-building in modern English: affixation, composition, conversion, abbreviation. There are also secondary ways of word-building: sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blends, back formation.

Affixation is one of the most productive ways of word-building throughout the history of English. It consists in adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. In our research we analyzed the problems of prefixation in English and Uzbek languages.

Word-formation is the process of creating new words from the material
available in the language after certain structure and semantic formulas and patterns.
For instance, the noun driver is formed after the pattern v + -er, i.e. a verb-stem +
the noun-forming suffix -er. The meaning of the noun driver is related to the
meanings of the stem drive and the suffix -er: "a driver is one who drives (a
carriage, motorcar, railway engine, etc.)". Likewise compounds resulting from two
or more stems joined together to form a new word are also built on quite definite
structural and semantic patterns and formulas, for instance, adjectives of the snow-
white
type built according to the formula n + adj, i.e. a noun stem + an adjective
stem: coal-black, age-long, care-free, etc.

It can easily be observed that the meaning of the whole compound is also
related to the meanings of the component part.

It should be noted that the understanding the word-formation as expounded
here excludes semantic word-building. By semantic word-building some linguists
understand any change in word-meaning, e.g. stock - "the lower part of the trench
of the tree"; "something lifeless or stupid"; "the part of an instrument that serves as
a base", etc.; bench - "a long seat of wood or stone"; "a carpenter's table", etc. The
majority linguists, however, understand this process only as a change in the
meaning of a word that may result in the appearance of homonyms, as is the case
with flower - "a blossom" and flour - "the fine meal", "powder, made from wheat
and used for making bread"; magazine - "a publication" and magazine - "the
chamber for cartridges in a gun or rifle", etc.

The application of the term word-forming to the process of semantic
changes and to the appearance of homonyms due to the development of polysemy
seems to be debatable for the following reasons: as semantic change does not, as a
rule, lead to the introduction of a new word into the vocabulary, it can scarcely be regarded as a word-building means. Neither can we consider the process a word-
building means even when an actual enlargement of the vocabulary does come
about through the appearance of a pair of homonyms. Actually, the appearance of
homonyms is not a means of creating new words, it is the final result of a long and
laborious of sense development. Furthermore, there are no patterns after which
homonyms can be made in the language. Finally, diverging sense-development
results in a semantic isolation of two or more meanings of a word, whereas the
process of word-formation proper is characterized by a certain semantic connection
between the new word and its component parts. For these reasons diverging sense-
development leading to the appearance of two or more homonyms should be
regarded as a specific channel through which the vocabulary of a language is
replenished with new words and should not be treated on a par with the process of
word-formation, such as affixation, conversion and composition.1



    1. ^ Affixation in the English language

Lexicology is primarily concerned with derivational affixes, the other group being the domain of grammarians. The derivational affixes in fact, as well as the whole problem of word-formation, form a boundary area between lexicology and grammar and are therefore studied in both.

Language being a system in which the elements of vocabulary and grammar are closely interrelated, our study of affixes cannot be complete without some discussion of the similarity and difference between derivational and functional morphemes.

The similarity is obvious as they are so often homonymous. Otherwise the two groups are essentially different because they render different types of meaning.

Functional affixes serve to convey grammatical meaning. They build different forms of one and the same word. A word-form, or the form of a word, is defined as one of the different aspects a word may take as a result of inflection. Complete sets of all the various forms of a word when considered as inflectional patterns, such as declensions or conjugations, are termed paradigms. A paradigm is therefore defined as the system of grammatical forms characteristic of a word, e.g. near, nearer, nearest; son, son's, sons, sons'.

Derivational affixes serve to supply the stem with components of lexical and lexico-grammatical meaning, and thus form different words. One and the same lexico-grammatical meaning of the affix is sometimes accompanied by different combinations of various lexical meanings. Thus, the lexico-grammatical meaning supplied by the suffix – y consists in the ability to express the, qualitative idea peculiar to adjectives and creates adjectives from noun stems. The lexical meanings of the same suffix are somewhat variegated: 'full of, as in bushy or cloudy, 'composed of, as in stony, 'having the quality of, as in slangy, 'resembling', as in baggy and some more. This suffix sometimes conveys emotional components of meaning. E.g. My school reports used to say: «Not amenable to discipline; too fond of organizing» which was only a kind way of saying: «Bossy?» (M. DICKENS) Bossy not only means 'having the quality of a boss' or 'behaving like a boss'; it is also an unkind derogatory word.

This fundamental difference in meaning and function of the two groups of affixes results in an interesting relationship: the presence of a derivational affix does not prevent a word from being equivalent to another word, in which this suffix is absent, so that they can be substituted for one another in context. The presence of a functional affix changes the distributional properties of a word so much that it can never be substituted for a simple word without violating grammatical standard. To see this point consider the following familiar quotation from Shakespeare:

Cowards die many times before their deaths;

The valiant never taste of death but once.

Here no one-morpheme word can be substituted for the words cowards, times or deaths because the absence of a plural mark will make the sentence ungrammatical. The words containing derivational affixes can be substituted by morphologically different words, so that the derivative valiant can be substituted by a root word like brave.

^ Semi-Affixes and Boundary cases between derivation and inflection

There are cases, however, where it is very difficult to drawer hard and fast line between roots and affixes on the one hand, and derivational affixes and in flexional formatives on the other. The distinction between these has caused much discussion and is no easy matter altogether.

There are a few roots in English which have developed great combining ability in the position of the second element of a word and a very general meaning similar to that of an affix. They receive this name because semantically, functionally, structurally and statistically they behave more like affixes than like roots. Their meaning is as general. They determine the lexicon-grammatical class the word belongs to. Cf sailor: seaman, where – man is a semi-affix.

Another specific group is farmed by the adverb-forming suffix – ly, following adjective stems, and the noun-forming suffixes: – ing, – ness, – er and by – ed added to a combination of two stems: fainthearted, long legged. By their almost unlimited combining possibilities (high valiancy) and the almost complete fusion of lexical and lexicon-grammatical meaning they resemble inflectional formatives. The derivation with these suffixes is so regular and the meaning and function of the derivatives so obvious that such derivatives are very often considered not worth an entry in the dictionary and therefore omitted as self-evident. Almost every adjective stem can produce an adverb with the help of – ly and an abstract noun by taking up the suffix – ness. Every verbal stem can produce the name of the doer by adding – er and the name of the process or its result by adding – ing. A suffix approaching those in productivity is – ish denoting a moderate degree of the quality named in the stem. Therefore these words are explained in dictionaries by referring the reader to the underlying stem. For example, in Concise Oxford dictionary we read: «womanliness–the quality of being womanly; womanized in senses of the verb; womanishly-in a womanish manner; womanly adv-in a womanly manner, womanishness-the quality or state of being womanish.»

These affixes are remarkable for their high valence also in the formation of compound derivatives corresponding to free phrases. Examples are: every day: everydayness.

Allomorphs

The combining from allo-from Greek allo «other» is used in linguistic terminology to denote elements of a group whose members together constitute a structural unit of the language (allophones, allomorphs). Thus, for example, – ion / – tion / – sion / – ation are the positional variants of the same suffix. To show this they are taken together and separated by the sign/. They do not differ in meaning or function but shav a slight difference in sound from depending on the final phoneme of the preceding stem. They are considered as variants of one and the same morpheme and called its allomorphs. Descriptive linguistics deals with the regularities in the distributional relations among the features and elements of speech, i. e. their occurrence restively to each other within utterances. The approach to the problem is consequently based on the principles of distributional analysis.

An allomorph is defined as a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and so characterized by complementary distribution. Complementary distribution is said to take place hen two linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment. Thus, stems ending in consonants take as a rule ation (liberation); stems ending in pt, however, take – tion (corruption) and the final t becomes fused with the suffix.

Different morphemes are characterized by, contrastive distribution, i.e. if they occur in the same environment they signal different meanings. The suffixes – able and – ed, for instance are different morphemes, not allomorphs, because adjectives in – able mean «capable of being»: measurable «capable of being measured», whereas – ed as a suffix of adjectives has a resultant force: measured «marked by due proportion», as the measured beauty of classical Greek art; hence also «rhythmical» and «regular in movement», as in the measured from of verse, the measured tread.

In same cases the difference is not very clear-cut – ic and – ical, for example, are two different affixes, the first a simple one, the second a group affix; they are characterized by contrastive, distribution. That is, many adjectives have both the – ic and – ical form, often without a distinction in meaning COD points out, that the suffix – ical shows a vaguer connection with what is indicated by the stem: comic paper but comical story. However, the distinction between them is not very sharp.

Allomorphs will also occur among prefixes. Their form then depends on the initials of the stem with which the will assimilate. A prefix such as im-occurs before bilabials (impossible), its allomorph ir-before r (irregular), il-before l (illegal). It is in – before all other consonants and vowels (indirect, inability).

Two or more sound forms of a stem existing under conditions of complementary distribution may also be regarded as allomorphs, as, for instance, in long a: length n, excite y: excitation, n.

In American descriptive linguistics allomorphs are treated on a purely semantic basis, so that not only [iz] in dishes, [z] in dreams and [s] in dreams and [s] in books, which are allomorphs in the sense given above, but also formally unrelated [in] in oxen, the vowed modification in tooth: teeth and zero suffix in many sheep, are considered to be allomorphs of the same morpheme on the strength of the sameness of their grammatical meaning. This surely needs some serious re-thinking, as within that kind of approach morphemes cease to be linguistic units combining the two fundamental aspects of form and meaning and become pure abstractions. The very term morpheme (from the 6 reek morphe «form») turns in to a misnomer because all connection with form is lost. Allomorphs there sore are phonetically conditioned positional variants of the same derivational or functional morpheme (suffix, root or suffix) identical in meaning and function and differing in sound only insomuch, as their complementary distribution produces various phonetic assimilation effects.


    1. ^ Degree of Derivation

Affixation is generally defined as the formation of words by adding
derivational affixes to stems. On the morphemic level every word firmed by means
of affixation has only one root morpheme, which is its semantic center and one are
more derivational affixes. For instance, the words displace and realism have each
only one root-morpheme and one derivational affix the prefix dis- and the suffix -
ism, whereas the noun reappearance consists of the prefix re-, the root-morpheme
appear - and the suffix - ance. On the derivational level derived words comprise a
primary stem (the stem being in itself either a simple, a derived or a compound
stem) and a derivational affix. For instance, violinist = n + - ist (a simple stem),
friendliness = (n + - ly) + - ness (a derived stem), chairmanship = (n + n) + - ship
(a compound stem).

The stems of words making up a word - cluster enter into derivational
relation is ascribed to simple words, i.e. words whose stem is homonymous with a
root-morpheme, e.g. atom, haste, devote, etc. atomic, hasty, devotion, etc.
derived words formed by two consecutive stages of coining possess the second
degree of derivation, etc, e.g. atomic, hasty, devotion, etc. the following diagram
graphically represents the hierarchy of derivational relation within a word-cluster,
the indexes 0, 1,2, etc. indicating the corresponding degree of derivation.

In conformity with the division of derivational affixes into suffixes and
prefixes affixation is subdivided into suffixation and prefixation. Distinction is
naturally made between prefixal and suffixal derivation, e.g. unjust, rearrange,
justly, arrangement.
Word like reappearance, unreasonable, denationalize are
generally qualified as prefixal - suffixal derivatives. The reader should clearly
realize that this qualification paper is relevant only in terms of the constituent
morphemes such words are made up of, i.e. from the angle of morphemic analysis from the point of view of derivational analyses such words are mostly suffixal or
prefixal derivates e.g. reappearance = (re + appear) + - ance, unreasonable = un+ (reason + - able), denationalize = de + (national- + ize).

A careful study of a great many suffixal and prefixal derivatives has revealed an essential difference between them. In Modern English suffixation is
characteristic of noun and adjective formation, while prefixation is typical of verb
formation. As a general rule, prefixes modify the lexical meaning of stems to which they are added. A prefixal derivative usually joins the part of speech the unprefixed word belongs to, e.g. unusual - cf. usual, indefinite - cf. definite, discomfort-cf. comfort, etc. In a suffixal derivative the suffix does not only modify the lexical meaning of the stem it is affixed to, but the word itself is usually transferred to another part of speech, e.g. care-less a - cf. care n; suit-able a - cf. suit v; good- ness n - cf. good adj., etc. Furthermore, it is necessary to point out that a suffix closely knit together with a stem forms a fusion retaining less of its independence than a prefix which is as a general rule, more independent semantically, cf. reading - «the act of one who reads»; ability to read; and to re-read - «to read again».

Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefix. Although the
terms «prefix» and «prefixation» are now firmly rooted in linguistic terminology,
they are treated differently in linguistic literature. They are linguists, for instance,
who treat prefixation as part of word - composition (or compounding); they believe
that a prefix has the same function as the first component of a compound word. The majority of linguists, however, treat prefixation as an integral part of word -
derivation regarding prefixes as derivational affixes which differ essentially from
root-morphemes and stems.

Some linguists' think it necessary to distinguish between two types of
prefixes: (1) those not correlated with any independent word (either notional or
functional), e.g. un-, dis-, re-, etc; and (2) those correlated with functional words (prepositions or preposition - like adverbs), e.g. out-, over-, up-, etc. Prefixes of
the second type are qualified as semi bound morphemes, which implies that they,
occur in the language both or independent words and as derivational affixes, e.g.
over one's head, over the river (cf. over head, overbalance); to run put, to take
out (cf. to outgrow, to outline); to look up, hands up! (cf. upstairs, to upset),
etc. it seems correct to distinguish between the two tops of prefixes here mentioned
and the distinction should be observed in linguistic literature on the subject.
However, the qualification of type II prefixes as semi - bound morphemes is open
to criticism, for English prefixes of this type essentially differ from the functional
words they are correlated with:

  1. these prefixes are characterized by a high frequency pages in a comprehensive dictionary will prove beyond doubt;

  2. like any other derivational affixes they have a more concrete meanings of the correlated words (see the examples given above).

  3. They are deprived of all grammatical features peculiar to the independent words they are correlated with.2

Therefore it seems to be more adequate to qualify such prefixes, at least in
the English language, as bound morphemes and regard them as homonyms of the
corresponding independent words, e.g. the prefix out, the prefix over - with the
preposition and the adverb over, etc.

Of late some new investigations into the problem of prefixation in English
have yielded interesting results. It appears that the traditional opinion, current
among linguists, that prefixes modify only the lexical meaning of words without
changing the part of speech is not quite correct with regard to the English language.

In English there are about 25 prefixes which can transfer words to a different
part of speech in comparison with their original stems. Such prefixes should perhaps be could convective prefixes, e.g. to be gulf (cf. gulf n.), to debus (q. bus n.), to embronze (cf. frozen), prewar a (cf. war n.), etc. If further investigation of English prefixation gives more proofs of the convertive ability of prefixes, it will then be possible to draw the conclusion that in this respect there is no functional difference between suffixes and prefixes, for suffixes in English are also both convertive (cf. hand-handless) and non-convertive (cf. father-fatherhood,
horseman - horsemanship,
etc).

According to the available word-counts of prefixal derivatives in the greatest
number are verbs 42,4 %, adjectives comprise 33,5 % and nouns make up 22,4 %.

^ For example:

Prefixal verbs: to enrich, to co-exist, to disagree, to undo.

Prefixal adjectives: anti-war, biannual, uneasy, super human.

Prefixal nouns: ex-champion, co-author, disharmony, subcommittee.


It is of interest to mention that the number of prefixal derivatives with a
certain part of speech is inverse proportion to the actual number of prefixes:
22 form verbs

  1. prefixes make adjectives

  2. nouns.


Proceeding from the three types of morphemes that the structural
classification involves two types of prefixes are to be distinguished.

  1. those not correlated with any independent word (either notional or functional)

  2. those correlated with functional words (prepositions or preposition-like
    adverbs) ex: but -, over -, up -, under -.

Prefixes of the second type are qualified as semi bound morphemes, which
implies that they occur in speech in various utterances both as independent words

and as derivational affixes.


Ex: over one's head, to overpass, to look up, upstairs


It should be mentioned that English prefixes of the second type essentially
differ from the functional words, they are correlated with:

  1. like any derivational affixes they have a more generalized meaning in
    comparison with the more concrete meanings of the correlated words they are
    characterized by a unity of different derivational component of meaning - a
    generalized component common to a set of prefixes and individual semantic
    component distinguishing the given prefix within the set.

  2. They are deprived of all grammatical features peculiar to the independent words they are correlated words.

  3. They tend to develop meaning not bound in the correlated words.

  4. They form regular sets of words of the semantic type.

In English there are about 25 prefixes which can transfer words to a different
part of speech in comparison with their original stems. Such prefixes should
perhaps be called convertive prefixes.


Ex: to begulf - gulf (n) to debus - bus (n) to embronze - bronze (n) etc.

If further investigations of English prefixation gives more proofs of the
convertive ability of prefixes, it will then be possible to draw the conclusion that in
this respect there is no functional difference between suffixes and prefixes, for
suffixes in English are also both convertive:


^ Ex: convertive hand (n) - handless

And non convertive father - fatherhood


Some recent investigations in the field of English affixation have revealed a
close in dependence between the meaning of a polisemantic affix and lexico-
semantic group to which belongs the base it is affixed to, which results in the
difference between structural and structural-semantic derivational patterns the
prefix forms. An illustration is in the prefix en, when within the same structural
patterns en + n - v, the prefix is combined with noun bases denoting articles of
closing, things of luxury, etc. it forms derived verbs expressing an action of putting
or placing on.


Ex: enrobe – robe enjewel – jewel enlace - lace

When adding to noun bases referring to various land forms, means of
transportation, containers and notions of geometry it builds derived verbs denoting
an action of putting or placing, in or into.


Ex: embed - bed

entrap - trap etc.


In combination with noun bases denoting an agent or an abstract notion the
prefix en-produces causative verbs.


Ex: enslave - slave

endanger - danger.


A careful study of a great many suffixal and prefixal derivatives has revealed an essential difference between them. In Modern English suffixation is
characteristic of noun and adjective formation, while prefixation is typical of verb
formation. As a general rule, prefixes modify the lexical meaning of stems to which they are added.

Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefix. Although the
terms «prefix» and «prefixation» are now firmly rooted in linguistic terminology,
they are treated differently in linguistic literature. They are linguists, for instance,
who treat prefixation as part of word - composition (or compounding); they believe
that a prefix has the same function as the first component of a compound word. The majority of linguists, however, treat prefixation as an integral part of word -
derivation regarding prefixes as derivational affixes which differ essentially from
root-morphemes and stems.

If further investigations of English prefixation gives more proofs of the
convertive ability of prefixes, it will then be possible to draw the conclusion that in
this respect there is no functional difference between suffixes and prefixes, for
suffixes in English are also both convertive.

In English there are about 25 prefixes which can transfer words to a different
  1   2   3   4



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